Nine Thematic Concepts

World Regional GeographySOC224Prof. K

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Nine Thematic Concepts by Mind Map: Nine Thematic Concepts

1. Development

1.1. Background Info.

1.1.1. three sectors of the economy primary sector extraction secondary sector industrial production tertiary sector services quaternary sector intellectual pursuits

1.2. Measuring Economic Development

1.2.1. gross domestic product (GDP) per capita total market value of goods and services of a country in a given year divided by the number of people in the country

1.2.2. purchasing power parity (PPP) amount of local currency equaling $1 of US money

1.2.3. Euro zone countries in the European Union that use the Euro currency

1.2.4. formal economy aspects of economy take place through official channels

1.2.5. informal economy aspects of economy take place outside official channels

1.3. Patterns of Human Well-Being

1.3.1. human well-being measures of the extent to which people can obtain a healthy and socially rewarding standard of living in a safe and sustainable environment

1.3.2. United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) calculates a country's well-being using income (adjusted to PPP), life expectancy at birth, and Educational attainment

1.3.3. United Nations Gender Equality Index (GEI) measure of inequality between men and women using data from reproductive health, political and educational empowerment, and labor-force participation (high rank=closer to equality)

1.4. Sustainable Development and Political Ecology

1.4.1. sustainable development effort to improve standards of living without jeopardizing that of future generatioons

1.4.2. political ecologists geographers who study interactions between development, politics, human well-being, and the environment

1.5. Human Impact on the Biosphere

1.5.1. Anthropocene time period that humans have had an overwhelming impact on the Biosphere

1.5.2. biosphere entirety of Earth's integrated physical spheres

1.5.3. ecological footprint amount of productive land needed to sustain a person at the standard of living for a given population

2. Population

2.1. Global

2.1.1. The rate of global population growth is slowing

2.2. Local

2.2.1. Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) relationship between the birth rate and death rate

2.2.2. migration movement of people from one country/place to another

2.2.3. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) average number of children a woman is likely to have

2.2.4. immigration in-migration

2.2.5. emigration out-migration

2.3. Age and Sex Structures

2.3.1. population pyramid graph depicting age and sex structures shows the number of people (male and female) in each age group

2.4. Population Growth Rates and Wealth

2.4.1. gross national income (GNI) per capita total production of good and services in a country in a given year divided by mid-year population

2.4.2. demographic transition change from high birth/death rates to low birth/death rates usually accompanied by other changes

2.4.3. subsistence economy families produce their own food, clothing, shelter

2.4.4. cash economy skilled workers, well-trained specialists, and farm laborers are paid in money

3. Gender

3.1. Background Info.

3.1.1. gender the way a social group defines differences between sexes

3.1.2. sex biological category of male or female

3.2. Gender Roles

3.2.1. definition socially assigned roles of males and females

3.2.2. gender issues inequalities in social roles and education Women: less education, married young, limited during years of pregnancy and nursing Men: forced to migrate, had low paying jobs, put in dangerous jobs and situations, many die off early

4. Food

4.1. Background Info.

4.1.1. Industrial Revolution series of ideas and innovations changing the way goods were manufactured (1750-1850)

4.2. Agriculture

4.2.1. definition practice of producing food through animal husbandry and cultivation of plants

4.2.2. domestication developing plants and animals through selective breeding

4.2.3. Ag and its consequences rapid population growth, concentrated settlements (easy for spread of diseases), environmental degradation, and malnutrition and famine

4.2.4. Modern Production and Security food security a state's ability to consistently supply a sufficient amount of basic food to the entire population green revolution new seeds, fertilizers, mechanized equipment, irrigation, pesticides, and herbicides resulting in increases of food production carrying capacity max number of people a given territory can sustainable support with food, water, and essential resources genetic modifications (GM) splicing together genes of divergent species to achieve desirable characteristics sustainable agriculture farming that meets human needs without poisoning the environment and/or using up water and soil resources

5. Urbanization

5.1. definition

5.1.1. process by which cities, towns, and suburbs grow as populations shift from rural to urban livelihoods

5.2. Why are cities growing?

5.2.1. push/pull phenomenon of urbanization conditions that push people to leave (political instability and economic changes) or pull people to move in (job opportunities)

5.2.2. slum densely populated area with crowding, run-down housing, inadequate access to food, clean water, education and social services

6. Globalization

6.1. Background Info.

6.1.1. interregional linkages economic, political, or social connections between regions (contiguous or widely separated)

6.2. What is the Global Economy?

6.2.1. definition worldwide system in which goods, services, and labor are exchanged

6.2.2. multinational corporations business organizations that operates extraction, production, and/or distribution facilities in multiple countries

6.3. The Debate over Globalization and Free Trade

6.3.1. free trade unrestricted international exchange of goods, services, and capital

6.3.2. World Trade Organization (WTO) global institution made up of member countries whose stated mission is the lowering of trade barriers and the establishment of ground rules for international trade

6.3.3. living wages minimum wages high enough to support a healthy life

6.3.4. fair trade alternative to free trade that values equity throughout the international trade system

7. Power and Politics

7.1. Background Info.

7.1.1. democratization transition toward political systems guided by competitive elections

7.1.2. authoritarianism political system where individual freedom goes straight to the power of the state or elite regional and local leaders

7.2. Democratization and Geopolitics

7.2.1. geopolitics strategies countries use to ensure that their own interests are served in relation with other countries

7.2.2. capitalism economic system based of private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods (competitive marketplace)

7.2.3. communism ideology; egalitarian society where workers share what they produce

7.2.4. ethnic cleansing deliberate removal of an ethnic group from an area (forced migration)

7.2.5. genocide deliberate destruction of an ethnic, racial, or political group

7.3. International Cooperation

7.3.1. United Nations (UN) assembly that sponsors programs and agencies focusing on economic development, security, general health and well-being, democratization, peacekeeping, assistance in "hot spots", humanitarian aid, and scientific research

7.3.2. Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) associations outside the formal governments where diverse individuals share views and activism on political, social, economic, or environmental issues

8. Water

8.1. Calculating Water Use per Capita

8.1.1. virtual water volume of water used to produce all that a person consumes in a year

8.1.2. water footprint water used to meet a person's basic needs for a year added to the person's annual virtual water consumption

8.2. Who Owns Water? Who Gets Access to it?

8.2.1. third most valuable commodity

8.2.2. water is becoming privatized privatized: ownership shift from government to individuals, corporations, and private entities

8.2.3. water quality 1/6 of the world population does not have access to clean drinking water over 6 million people a year die from dirty water

8.2.4. water and urbanization crucial water treatment systems are lacking in slums and urban areas

9. Climate Change

9.1. Background Info.

9.1.1. climate change slow shifting of climate patterns due to the general cooling or warming of the atmosphere

9.1.2. global warming warming of Earth's climate as atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases increase

9.1.3. greenhouse gases gases (ie. carbon dioxide and methane) released into the atmosphere by human activities (becoming harmful in excessive amounts)

9.2. Drivers of Global Climate Change

9.2.1. Electricity generation, vehicles, industrial processes, and the heating of homes and businesses all burn large amounts of CO2 and producing fossil fuels

9.3. Responding to Climate Change

9.3.1. Kyoto Protocol amendment to a United Nations Treaty on global warming (sets binding targets for industrial countries for the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases