Foundations of Psychology

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Foundations of Psychology by Mind Map: Foundations of Psychology

1. Determining function by destroying/removing part of the brain and observing what happens

2. Zeitgeist

2.1. The defining spirit or mood of a particular period of history as shown by the ideas and beliefs of the time.

2.2. 17th and 18th Century

2.2.1. Reflected machines in daily use Universe = giant machine Machines mimic human action Automata Calculating engine

2.2.2. Scientific method 1. Observation 2. Experimentation Measurement

2.2.3. Clockwork universe Voltaire Pooping duck

3. Antiquity

3.1. Plato

3.1.1. Innate dispositions

3.1.2. "The Cave" Not all learning comes from the senses Can be misinformed by your senses Objective learning = important Measurement Deductive reasoning

3.2. Aristotle

3.2.1. Mind located in the heart Locus of the mind

3.2.2. Blank slate Emphasis on experience

3.3. Augustine

3.3.1. Senses aren't a source of truth

3.3.2. Subjective basis for introspection

3.3.3. Divine revelation

3.4. Thomas Aquinas

3.4.1. Scholasticism Human reasoning = complementary to faith

3.5. Socrates

3.5.1. Founder of rationalism

3.5.2. No absolute truth Truth must be acquired through the Socratic method Asking a series of Qs designed to lead people to truth

4. Renaissance

4.1. Rene Descartes

4.1.1. Mind-body problem Separation between mind and body Psychology deals with the mental. spiritual world Physiology deals with the bodily or sensory aspects of the physical world Mechanistic

4.1.2. Doctrine of Ideas 1. Innate ideas* Inborn; do not require experience 2. Derived Ideas Arise from experience

4.1.3. Nature of Body Body = matter Body = machine Involuntary Movements Not determined by conscious will Theory of reflex action Human behavior is predictable

4.1.4. Sought to build new field of philosophy from ground up

4.1.5. "I think therefore I am"

4.2. Copernicus

4.2.1. Heliocentric model of the universe

4.3. Isaac Newton

4.3.1. Physics Early conceptions of consciousness

4.4. Julien de La Metrie

4.4.1. Man as machine

4.4.2. Humans have perfect rationality

4.5. Galileo Galilee

4.5.1. Pioneer experimenter Controlled certain variables while manipulating and measuring others Experimental method

5. Enlightenment

5.1. John Locke

5.1.1. Theory of Association Association = learning

5.1.2. Emphasis on experience Tabula Rasa Derived ideas

5.1.3. 1. Sensations Input from external physical objects experienced as sense impressions to produce ideas Precede reflections

5.1.4. 2. Reflections Mind operates on the sense impressions to produce ideas

5.1.5. Primary Qualities Objective Perceived

5.1.6. Secondary Qualities Subjective Experienced

5.2. Rise of British Associationism

5.2.1. Nativism Immanuel Kant Counterpoint to the enlightenment thinkers Mind = dynamic Innate predispositions toward the environment Pure Reason Leibnitz Eternal inborn traits (Innate intellect) Disagreed with the idea of a blank slate While Locke said nothing is in the intellect which was not first in the senses, Leibniz said nothing is there but intellect itself Mind is not a blank slate but a block of veined marble (the shape gets sculpted but was already there to begin with)

5.2.2. Empiricism George Berkley Perception is the only reality Mentalism Knowledge is constructed from simple ideas held together by associations David Hume Impressions Ideas Laws of Association All knowledge is derived from sensory experience

5.2.3. David Hartley Association by contiguity Explains memory, reasoning, emotion, voluntary and involuntary actions Influence of mechanism Biology, medical man and science focused Mind and body are related biologically Localized mental faculties Associations are basic to all ideas

5.2.4. Materialism Considers the facts of the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter

5.2.5. Positivism Recognizes only natural phenomenon or facts that are objectively observable

5.2.6. James Mill Mind = machine Goal: destroy subjective and psychic activities Mechanistic

5.3. John Stuart Mill

5.3.1. Active associations The mental processes that act upon environmental stimuli, justifying the need for a mind construct within Locke's model

5.3.2. Mental Chemistry Analysis = key Possible to study mind scientifically

6. New Psychology

6.1. Experimental Psychology

6.1.1. Wilhelm Wundt "Founder of Psychology" 1st laboratory Determined to establish a new discipline Experimental Method/Empirical Science Physiological = experiemental Psychology = Social Experimental Consciousness Related to associationism Reductionism Introspection Observation of conscious experience

6.1.2. Voluntarism Volition; will Power of the will to organize mental contents inter higher-level processing Emphasis on activity rather than elements

6.1.3. E.B. Titchener Instrumentation Psychology Breaking concepts down to its most basic components Structuralism Emphasis on elements

6.1.4. Gustav Fechner Understanding the relationship between the physical world and one's perception of it Attempted to measure the limits of people's perception of the physical world Threshold Breaking point between perceiving and not perceiving Reliability of senses Naive Realism Perception does not equal reality Psychophysics Thresholds Phenomenological Method Recognition Detection Magnitude estimation Searching Originator of psychology

6.1.5. Herman Von Helmholtz Neural Impulse 1st empirical measurement of the rate of neural impulse conduction Vision Internal eye muscles focus lens Revised theory of color vision Audition Perception of tones Nature of harmony and discord Problem of resonance Thought and movement = successive, not simultaneous

6.2. Antecedents to Functionalism

6.2.1. Darwin Theory of Natural Selection

6.2.2. Galton

6.3. Physiology

6.3.1. Experimentally-oriented

6.3.2. Marshall Hall Different levels of movement (nervous system) Voluntary Reflex Involuntary

6.3.3. Pierre Flourens Used Extirpation Higher mental processes Visual and auditory reflexes

6.3.4. Paul Broca Clinical method Broca's Area Speech center

6.3.5. Gustav Fritsch and Eduard HItzig Electrical stimulation to observe motor responses

6.3.6. Franz Josef Gall Mapping of the brain Brain size = important Phrenology

6.3.7. Luigi Galvani Nerve impulses = electrical Nervous system = conductor of electrical impulses Nervous system = conductor of electrical impulses

6.3.8. Santiago Ramon y Cajal Direction of travel for brain and spinal cord nerve impulses