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1. Translation skills

1.1. Listen

1.1.1. Understand context

1.2. Writing

1.2.1. Grammatical syntax

1.3. Cultural intelligence

1.3.1. Different origins

1.4. Knowledge

1.4.1. Specialization.

1.5. Observation

1.5.1. Pay attention

1.6. Time management

1.6.1. working hours

2. Intralingual translation

2.1. Identical language

2.2. Different culture

2.3. Paraphrase

2.4. New purpose

3. Interlingual translation

3.1. One language to another.

3.2. Linguistic equivalence

3.2.1. Word-Word

3.3. Paradigmatic equivalence

3.3.1. similarity-com.grama.

3.4. Stylistic equivalence

3.4.1. Similarity-meaning-express

3.5. Textual equivalence

3.5.1. Similarity-structure-form

4. Intersemiotic translation

4.1. interpretation of verbal-non-verbal signs

4.2. example

5. Proceso de traducción

5.1. Analyze text of source language

5.1.1. Grammar-meaning

5.2. Transfer

5.2.1. Analize SL-TL

5.3. Restructured

5.3.1. Acceptable TL

6. Translation equivalence

6.1. Transmit same meanings

6.1.1. Relation between TL-SL

6.2. Different levels

6.2.1. Lexical patterning Idioms

6.2.2. Grammatical category Adding or omitting

6.2.3. Pragmatic equivalence implications and strategies

7. Grammatical equivalence

7.1. Number

7.2. Gender

7.3. Person

7.4. Voice

7.5. Tense and aspect

8. Translation procedure

8.1. Smallest linguistic changes

8.1.1. Additional information

8.1.2. Deleting information

8.1.3. Structural adjustment

8.1.4. Change of grammatical structure

8.1.5. L. translation

8.1.6. Not in accordance with natural use

8.1.7. Replace lexical gap grammar structure

9. Assessment in translation studies

9.1. Accuracy

9.2. Almost accuracy

9.3. Inaccuracy

10. Diachronic linguistic

10.1. Across time

10.2. Study of the language

10.2.1. Evolution

10.3. Linguistic changes

10.4. Origin- today

11. Synchronic linguistic

11.1. With time

11.2. Geographic study of language

11.3. Opposite to the diachronic

12. Language contact

12.1. Interaction with another

12.2. Linguistic transfers

12.3. Types of situation

12.3.1. Dialect contact Languages

12.3.2. Exogamus contact Members come from different parts

12.3.3. Fieldworkers Language shift

13. Translation competence

13.1. C. in two languages

13.1.1. Comprehension- production

13.2. C. transfer

13.2.1. Tex. Ori- Ela. Fi

13.3. C. instrumental and professional

13.4. C. extralinguistic

13.4.1. Organization, world and areas

13.5. psychophysiological

13.5.1. Promoter resources application cognitive attitudinal

13.6. C. strategic

13.6.1. Individual procedure

14. Translation competence acquisition

14.1. process requires:

14.1.1. prior knowledge Expert

14.1.2. Dynamic

14.1.3. Learning competence

15. Translation

15.1. communication activity

15.2. translation of elements

15.3. Language of departure - Language of arrival

16. Translator

16.1. Knowledge of more than one language

16.2. necessary skills other language

17. Translator elements

17.1. Theoretical and practical

17.2. Extralinguistic knowledge

17.3. Labor market knowledge

17.4. strategies

17.5. Computer tools

17.6. Skill, problem-solution

18. Competences

18.1. Characteristic of a person.

18.2. successful relationship of an activity

18.3. Relationship with the context

18.3.1. Cognitive Knowledge-skill

18.3.2. Affective Personality-emotions

18.3.3. Psychometric Skill

18.3.4. physiological Physical integrity

19. Translation competence

19.1. communication talk-analysis speech

19.1.1. Grammatical Vocabulary; New words.

19.1.2. Sociolinguistic Produce, understand; Language.

19.1.3. Discursive Grammatical domain; Language.

19.1.4. Strategic. Understand faults; Communication

19.2. Elements

19.3. C. Bilingual

19.3.1. Textual, grammatical and lexical.

19.4. C. Extralinguistic

19.4.1. Encyclopedic and thematic

19.5. C. Transfer

19.5.1. Translator process, decode, encode

19.6. C. Professional

19.6.1. Knowledge, skills. Professional translation

19.7. C. Strategic

19.7.1. plan the process and execute

19.8. C. Psychophysiological

19.8.1. Skills cognitive, attitudinal

20. Translator's competences

20.1. Exclusive competences.

20.2. Results orientation

20.2.1. Reach objectives, work properly, modification in processes.

20.3. Orientation to quality, accuracy and order.

20.3.1. Excellence and quality in actions, definition of functions and objectives, accuracy of information, control of project progress, monitoring of information.

20.4. Attention to detail;

20.4.1. Quality in production, concentration, organization and quality in tasks

20.5. Tolerance to routine

20.5.1. Productivity, concentration, conservative attitude.

20.6. Search of information

20.6.1. Reliable, direct information, problems of people, origin of the problem.

20.7. Communicative

20.7.1. Ideas, thoughts, feelings, understanding, verbal communication, questions, transmit.

20.8. Autonomy

20.8.1. Independent work, without assistance, security and trust.

20.9. Planification and organization.

20.9.1. Priorities, action plans, manage tools, time management.

20.10. Non-exclusive competences.

20.11. Flexibility

20.11.1. adaptation to different environments, change opinion, act required mind.

20.12. Learning capacity

20.12.1. ability to acquire knowledge, capture information, investigative spirit.

21. Types of translation (field)

21.1. Technical translation

21.1.1. Documents for a specific and limited audience (user manual, internal notes, medical translation, financial methods)

21.2. Scientific translation

21.2.1. Deals with documents in the science (articles, theses, study reports).

21.3. Financial translation

21.3.1. Financial banking, stock exchange, company annual report.

21.4. Legal translation

21.4.1. warrants, administratives text, corporate statement, text for jurifical statement.

21.5. Judicial translation

21.5.1. Task of translation undertake in a court. Regulatory,manual or proceeding judgment.

21.6. Juridical Translation

21.6.1. Legally- binding documentation Laws, regulations and decides, general sales and purchase condition

21.7. Calified translation

21.7.1. Used their signature to authenticate official translation Civil status, divorce statement, documentation, mental agreement, etc.

21.8. Literary translation

21.8.1. Render the semantic content of the original text and then deal with Polysemic words, the author own particular literary style, rhythm, meter and the innate balance of the phrase

22. TEXT (text genres)

22.1. A Piece of written or printed material, typically forming a connected piece of work.

22.2. Field: Ideational component covering linguistic content

22.3. Tenor : interpersonal component function in relation to sender/receiver roles.

22.4. Mode: Textual component involving medium channel.


23.1. Word for word

23.1.1. Translate one word at a time, with or without changing the original meaning of the text

23.2. Semantic translation

23.2.1. Intention is the same as the author, translation might be larger, be able to write in an extensive vocabulary

23.3. Literal translation

23.3.1. Is the representation of text from one language to another 'one word at a time'

23.4. Faithful translation

23.5. Free translation

23.5.1. Preserves the meaning of the original text, but use natural forms of the target language (paraphrase)

23.6. Adaptation method

23.6.1. Translator substitute cultural realities and scenarios for which there is not reference in the TL (free)

23.7. Idiomatic translation

23.7.1. It use more natural components of the language and also more literary as idioms, proverbs, etc which make text more literary

24. Types of translation (Linguistic)

25. Translation techniques

25.1. Techinal procedures of literal translation

25.1.1. Borrowing It is used mainly by necessity, due to the fact that a certain word does not exist in the target language.

25.1.2. Calque A word or phrase taken from another language by a literal translation, word by word

25.1.3. Literal translation It can be used in some languages ​​and not in others depending on the structure of the sentence

25.2. Technical procedures of oblique translation

25.2.1. Transposition This is the process in which the speech parts change their sequence when they are translated

25.2.2. Modulation A change in the point of view of the message without altering the meaning and without generating a sensation of discomfort for the reader

25.2.3. Equivalence Express something in a completely different way

25.2.4. Adaptation A linguistic culture is expressed in a totally different way for another linguistic culture. It is a change in the cultural environment.

25.3. Other technical procedures

25.3.1. Pragmatic formal aspect of specialized communication

25.3.2. Commercial letter: confirmation letter request of information Claim letter or payment request

25.3.3. Report and memorandum


26.1. Narrative

26.1.1. tell you a story or problem

26.2. Descriptive

26.2.1. Show through observation how a thing is done.

26.3. Argumentative

26.3.1. The process or supporting or weakening another statement.

26.4. Instructional

26.4.1. Text about how to do things

26.5. Expository text

26.5.1. Inform or describe

27. Documents

27.1. Material that support that contains information and transmit knowledge

27.2. Textual

27.2.1. Written language

27.3. Sonorous

27.3.1. Medium oral, language or sounds

27.4. Audiovisuals

27.4.1. Based in images and sound (mp4)

27.5. Photographic

27.5.1. Photographs digital

27.6. Digitals

27.6.1. Stored digitally (pdf,word)

28. History of Spanish

28.1. It has 400 million speakers

28.2. There is no exact date of origin

28.3. It arises thanks to the separation of populations

28.4. It has Indo-European origin (Iberian Peninsula)

28.5. Century III And the I a.C. Roman Empire conquered the peninsula

28.5.1. Latin Romance languages, Italian, French, Romanian, Portuguese, Catalan and Spanish

28.6. Mix with the tongues - vulgar Latin

28.6.1. Region of Castilla Spanish

28.7. Arabs conquered

28.7.1. creation of Mozarabic languages- 400 words

28.8. XIII Century Alfonso X

28.8.1. Castilian medieval- importance dialect of Toledo

28.9. 1942

28.9.1. Isabel I and Fernando II They expel Arabs Spanish official language Spanish is mixed with substrate languages ​​of each region

28.10. Golden Age

28.10.1. Spanish aurico unified to existing languages

28.11. 1492

28.11.1. Colon confronted a thousand languages Aztec

28.12. 1516

28.12.1. Suggestions arise Teach to read and write Spanish Monarchy

29. History of English

29.1. England before English (55 B.V-600 A.D)

29.1.1. It has more than 300 million speakers and 1500 million official users Celtas 2,000 years British Isles 55 a.C Julio Cesar (emperor) 40 a.C. Romans withdrew from Britain 5th and 6th century British expelled German speaking tribes

29.2. Old English (600.1100)

29.2.1. 5th century BC Germanic tribes invaded Great Britain

29.2.2. (1100 a.C.) English Anglo-Saxon

29.3. Middle English (1100-1500)

29.3.1. October 1066 Battle of Hastings William defeated the English commanded by King Harold II

29.3.2. the conquest brought changes impact English language English lost status

29.3.3. 1204 French decrease as official language in England

29.3.4. Centuries XIII and XIV English as a medium of instruction

29.3.5. XIV Black Death 1345-3151 people died (decrease in hand and work and increase in English War of the Hundred Years (1337-1453) loss of continental exploitations (not important to learn French

29.3.6. 1476 William Caxton standardization of English

29.3.7. 1492 discovery of america global expansion of the English language

29.3.8. 1500 English as a regional European language, global communication system

29.3.9. 14th century English middle Germanic Roman vocabulary

29.4. The Early Modern English (1500-1700)

29.4.1. 1509 Ascent of Henry VIII to the throne At the end of the middle English, syntactic and morphological patterns had been established Modern English analytical Order words subject-verb-object

29.4.2. 1450-1650 belt of the seven vowels- two in diphthongs

29.4.3. Renaissance Latin and Greek were introduced long words in the language

29.5. Present Day English (1700-Today)

29.5.1. 1700 the English language differs from the current English no regional language, used now

29.5.2. XVI first significant step of the English process global language

29.5.3. 1603 literature grew Spencer, Marlowe and Shakespeare

29.5.4. Today Diffusion of English (three concentric circles) internal circle outer circle Circle expansion