LEARNING change in an organism's actions, thoughts, or emotions as a result of experience

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LEARNING change in an organism's actions, thoughts, or emotions as a result of experience by Mind Map: LEARNING  change in an organism's actions, thoughts,  or emotions as a result of experience

1. Instinctive Drift

1.1. The tendency for animals to return to innate behaviours following repeated reinforcement

2. Preparedness

2.1. We're evolutionarily predisposed to fear certain stimuli more than others

2.2. Prepared fears are "evolutionary memories" (emotional legacies of natural selection)

2.3. May render us likely to develop illusory correlations between stimuli and negative consequences

3. Preparedness and Phobias

3.1. People fear things that they've never had a particularly terrifying experience with

4. Conditioned Taste Aversions

4.1. Refers to the fact that classical conditioning can lead us to lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of food

4.2. Typically require ONE trial to develop

4.3. CTA are remarkably specific and display little evidence of stimulus generalization

4.4. Cancer patients eat scapegoat food before chemotherapy

4.5. Contradicts Equipotentiality - The claim that we can classically condition all CSs equally well to all UCSs, a belief held by many traditional behaviourists

5. Insight Learning

5.1. "AHA" moment in learning

5.2. Wolfgang Kohler (Gestalt Psychology)

6. Mirror Neurons

6.1. When a monkey watches another monkey perform an action, a group of neurons in its prefrontal cortex, near its motor cortex, becomes active

6.2. The same cells that would have become active had the monkey performed the same movement, "imagining" the movement

6.3. Conjectured that mirror neurons play a central role in empathy, including feeling others' emotional states and emulating their movements

7. Real World Aggression & Video Games

7.1. Is it the violent video games creating the aggression or are more aggressive kids more interested in violent video games?

8. Aggression

8.1. Albert Bandura proved that children can learn to act aggressively by watching aggressive others

8.2. Bobo doll: Adults either ignoring or hitting the dolls with kids watching Kids who saw aggression were more likely to be aggressive

9. Cognitive conditioning - our interpretation of the situation affects conditioning, suggests that conditioning is more than an automatic, mindless process

9.1. Pavlov's dogs heard the ticking of the metronome and THOUGHT "ah, i think some meat powder is on the way"

10. Interpretation - whether criticism is viewed as constructive feedback or a personal attack

11. Learning histories - in essence how someone has been trained to react to criticism

12. Cognitive Modes of Learning

13. Radial Behaviourism

13.1. Skinner believed that observable behaviour, thinking, and emotion are all governed by the same laws of learning, namely, classical and operant conditioning (thought that thinking wasn't any different from any other behaviour)

14. Two Factor Theorem

14.1. People acquire phobias by means of classical conditioning, then once they have the phobia, they start to avoid their feared stimulus whenever they encounter it

14.2. If they have a dog phobia, they may cross the street whenever they see someone walking toward the with a dog. When they do they experience a reduction in anxiety that negatively reinforces their fear

15. Fear & Conditioning

15.1. Classically conditioned fear reactions are based largely in the amygdala, whereas operantly conditioned responses are based largely in brain areas rich in dopamine ( linked to reward).

16. Applied behaviour Analysis (ABA) - for autism makes extensive use of shaping techniques, mental health professionals offer food and other primary reinforcers to individuals with autism as they reach progressively closer approximations to certain words, and eventually, complete sentences (LOVAAS)

17. Therapeutic Uses of Operant Conditioning

17.1. Target Behaviours - actions they hope to make more frequent. Reinforce patients who exhibit these behaviours using tokens, chips, points, or other secondary reinforcers

17.2. Token Economy - system, often set up in psychiatric hospitals, for reinforcing appropriate behaviours and extinguishing inappropriate ones

17.3. Secondary Reinforcers - are neutral objects that become associated with Primary Reinforcers

18. Explaining Superstitions

18.1. When given reinforcement without actually performing a behaviour, we start to believe that we actually DID do something that caused the reinforcement

18.2. Accidental operant conditioning --> superstitious conditioning

19. Overcoming Procrastination

19.1. Don't reward yourself with fun things/treats until you've finished your work

20. Animal Training

20.1. Shaping by Successive Approximations: Train a new target behaviour by reinforcing behaviours that aren't exactly the target behaviour but that are progressively closer versions of it

20.2. Chaining: They link several interrelated behaviours to a longer series (each becomes cue for the next behavior in the chain)

21. Ratio Schedule

21.1. FIXED RATIO: Reinforced after same set number of responses

21.2. VARIABLE RATIO: Reinforced after a specific number of responses on average but the precise number of responses required during any given period varies randomly


22. Interval Schedule

22.1. FIXED INTERVAL: Provide reinforcement at least once after a specified amount of time

22.2. VARIABLE INTERVAL: Provide reinforcement for producing the response after an average time interval, with the interval varying randomly

23. Partial Reinforcement

23.1. Better for long-term retention of behaviour, not for quick learning

23.2. If you give a dog a treat some of the time, when you stop, they still wait for the possibility of one coming

24. Observational Learning

24.1. Learning by watching others

24.2. Saves us from having to learn everything first-hand

25. Latent learning

25.1. Edward Chase Tolman- suspected threats reinforcement wasn’t the be-all and end-all oflearning

25.2. Competence- what we know

25.3. Performance- showing what you know

25.4. Rats who started off without reinforcement, then were given reinforcement halfway through, did the best

25.5. Cognitive Maps - spatial representations of the maze (theta waves)

26. S-O-R Thinking

26.1. O is the organism that that interprets the stimulus before having produced a response

26.2. The link between S and R isn't mindless or automatic The response to a stimulus depends on what this stimulus means to it

26.3. Ex; people’s reactions to you telling them you don’t appreciate them eating with their mouth opened.

27. Suggestive accelerative learning and Teaching Techniques (SALTT)

27.1. Relies on, generating expectations, getting students to visualize info they're learning, playing classical music, and breathing in regular rhythm while learning

28. Discovery Learning

28.1. Teach kids about "ruling out rival hypothesis" by giving them experimental materials and asking them to figure out the scientific principles on their own

28.2. Direct Instruction - when we simply tell them how to solve the problem (usually more effective and efficient)

29. Accelerated Learning

30. Learning styles

30.1. Their preferred means of acquiring information

30.2. Matching students with their learning style doesn't actually produce results

31. Sleep-assisted learning

31.1. Learning new material while asleep

31.2. Evidence found,but did tapes wake people up?

32. Learning Fads

33. Schedules of Reinforcement

34. Discriminative Stimulus Any stimulus that signals the presence of reinforcement

34.1. When we snap our fingers at a dog for it to come over to us, is approaches expecting petting because the finger snapping is a signal that if it comes over, it will receive positive reinforcement

35. Disadvantages

35.1. Teaches the organism what NOT to do, not WHAT to do

35.2. Creates anxiety, interferes with future learning

35.3. Encourage subversive behaviour, prompting 'sneaking around' about the situations where they can and can't display the behaviour

36. Skinner Box

36.1. Electronically records an animal's responses and prints out a cumulative record or graph of the activity

36.2. Ex. Rat presses bar, dispenses food, and light signals when reward is coming, electronically measures when light /sensor is hit

37. Insight

37.1. Learning by grasping the underlying nature of the problem

37.2. Characterized by the "AHA" moment, once cats figure out the solution, the get it correct every time following

38. S-R Psychology

38.1. Theorizes that everything we do in life (all our complex behaviours) reflect the progressive accumulation of associations between stimuli and responses

38.2. Everything we do voluntarily results from the gradual build-up of S-R bonds due to the law of effect

39. Learning controlled by the consequences of the organism's behavior

39.1. The organism's behaviour is shaped by what comes after it (aka reward)

39.2. Rewards are known as operants because the animal "operates" on its environment to get what it wants

40. Principles

41. Applications

42. Disgust reactions

42.1. Paul Rozin- Fudge shapes like dog feces

42.2. Normal things paired with typically gross things elicit this same response

43. Fetishes

43.1. Sexual attraction to non-living things, possibly caused by the pairing of non-living things with sexual experience

44. Classical conditioning

45. Higher-Oder conditioning

45.1. An organism develops a classically conditioned response to a previously neutral stimuli that will later become associated with the original CS

46. Spontaneous Recovery

46.1. Seemingly extinct CR appears as we present the CS again. The subject does not forget it but rather suppresses it.

46.2. Renewal effect- when a response is extinguished in a different setting than conditioned in, the response can reappear when returned to the original setting

47. Stimulus Discrimination

47.1. Occurs when we exhibit less pronounced CR to CSs’ that differ from the original

48. Stimulus Generalization

48.1. The process by which the CSs’ that are similar, but not identical, to or original CS. Elicit like the CR

49. Extinction

49.1. The CR decreases in magnitude and will eventually disappear when the CS is repeatedly presented without the CS. The CR rewrites over the CR with a new one

49.2. Still an active process

50. Acquisition

50.1. As the CS and UCS are paired; the CR increases progressively in strength Backward conditioning- when the UCS is presented before the CS (hard to achieve)

51. A form of learning which has animals respond to a neutral stimulus that has been paired with another stimulus.

51.1. 1. Start with a neutral stimulus that does not provide no response. Ex. Metronome

51.2. 2. Pairs the NS with Unconditional Stimulus, a stimulus that elicits an automatic response. Ex. Meat powder.

51.3. 3.Through time the NS was able to cause a response without the UCS, which was then deemed the CR. The CR will become the same as the UCR. The NS has become the conditioned stimulis.

52. Law of Effect E.L. Thorndike

52.1. If a response, in the presence of a stimulus, is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, the bond between the stimulus and response will be strengthened

53. Reinforcement Any outcome that strengthens the probability of a response

53.1. Positive Reinforcement - Administering a desired stimulus

53.2. Negative Reinforcement - Removing an undesired stimulus

54. Punishment Any outcome that weakens the probability of a response

54.1. Positive Punishment - Administering an undesired stimulus

54.2. Negative Punishment - Removing a desired stimulus

55. B.F Skinner and Reinforcment

56. Ivan Pavlov Russian Psychologists' primary research was on dogs digestion and salvation.

56.1. The dogs were placed in a harness, and cannulas were inserted into their salivary glands in order to study the salivary responseto meat powder

56.2. Dogs salivation increased not only with the presence of meat powder but with the stimulus like the sound of footsteps.

57. Operant Conditioning

58. Types of Learning

59. Habituation

59.1. The process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli

59.2. Ignoring stimulation is caused by a progressive decrease in release of serotonin at the synaps

59.3. Only habituate that are deemed safe to ignore

60. Sensitization

60.1. Responding more strongly over time to a repeated stimulus

60.2. Most likely to occur when a stimulus is irritating, dangerous or both

61. Differences front Classical Conditioning

61.1. 1. The response is emitted, generated in a seemingly more voluntary fashion

61.2. 2. The reward is contingent on behaviour, dependent on what it does

61.3. 3. Responses depend primarily on the skeletal muscles, voluntary motor behaviour

62. Continuous Reinforcement

62.1. Better for quick learning, not for retention of behaviour

63. Biological Influences on Learning