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1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Generic Notions

1.1.1. 1.The child must try hard to learn, it is not just all of the work the teacher does.

1.1.2. 2.Lecture isn't always the best form of teaching. Some students learn better being hands-on.

1.1.3. 3. Teacher plays an active role in discussion, posing questions, selecting materials, and establishing an environment.

1.2. Goal of Education

1.2.1. 1. Students should learn to collaborate together.

1.2.2. 2. Students should learn how to live inside and outside of the classroom.

1.2.3. 3. Students should improve every day.

1.3. Role of Teacher

1.3.1. 1. Analyze and discuss ideas with students so that they understand.

1.3.2. 2. Be a role model as a teacher

1.3.3. 3.Supports moral education as a means of linking ideas to action.

1.4. Method of Instruction

1.4.1. 1.Be active in students' learning.

1.4.2. 2. Through question students and ensure they apply what they learn.

1.4.3. 3. Let students work in groups and provide different types of test.

1.5. Curriculum

1.5.1. 1. Should prepare students for future purposes not just in the classroom

1.5.2. 2. Cover students questions and interest.

1.5.3. 3. Hands on activities and different types of ways to teach and cover materials.

1.6. Key Researchers

1.6.1. John Dewey

1.6.2. Plato

1.6.3. Aristotle

2. Curriculum and Pedagogy

2.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

2.1.1. Related to needs and interest of the students rather than the needs of society.

2.1.2. Students centered teaching and relating the curriculum to the needs and interest of each child at particular development stages.

2.1.3. Stressed flexibility in both what was taught and how it was taught.

2.2. Modern Functionalist

2.2.1. History or literature is less important than the role of the school in teaching students how to learn.

2.2.2. Designed to enable students to function within democratic, meritocratic, and expert society.

2.2.3. Stressed the role of the schools in preparing students for the increasingly complex roles required in a modern society.

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Conservative

3.1.1. Individuals and groups must compete in the social environment in order to survive and human progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive

3.1.2. Views role of schools as essential to both economic productivity and social stability

3.1.3. Positive view of U.S. society and believes that capitalism is the best economic system.

3.2. Traditional

3.2.1. Visions tend to view the schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of the U.S. society, such as Hard work, family unity, and individual initiative.

3.2.2. Should pass on the best and so on of what was and what is

3.2.3. Conservative views and traditional views are closely together.

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Educational system in India

4.1.1. India is poor so most of the classes are lecture and paper based.

4.1.2. computers and other technology is limited compared to the U.S.

4.1.3. No Counselors

4.1.4. Teacher student relationship differs

4.2. Stakeholders in my District

4.2.1. Respresentation of State Board of Education Cynthia Sanders McCarty

4.2.2. Representatives in the U.S. House of Represwntatives Terri Sewell Martha Roby Mo Brooks Gary Palmer Bradley Byme Michael D. Rodgers Robert Aderholt

4.2.3. State Superintendent Thomas Bice

4.2.4. Senators Jefferson Sessions Richard Shelby

4.2.5. Local School Board Gene Sullins Chris Carter James Thompson Kenny Brockman Wendy Crider Mike Graves Jason Speegle

4.2.6. Local Superintendent Dr. Craig Ross

5. History of U.S. Education

5.1. No Child Left Behind

5.1.1. In 2001, George Bush pushed the NCLB reform.

5.1.2. Proved the performance of America's schools and endured no child was left behind

5.1.3. (VAM) Value Added Models. Teacher quality linked to standardized test of students achievements and closing of schools.

5.2. Radical- Revisionist School

5.2.1. Believed expansion of schools in the late 19th early 20th century was done for social control rather than the interest of equity.

5.2.2. Agree that the results of educational expansion rarely met their putative democratic aspitations

5.2.3. Believed educational system expanded to meet the needs of the elites in society for control over working class and immigrants.

6. Sociological Perspectives

6.1. Functional Theories

6.1.1. Durkheim believed education in all societies was critically important in creating moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony in high integrated, well functioning society schools.

6.1.2. Socialize students into the appropriate values and sort and select students according to their abilities.

6.1.3. Create structures, programs, and curriculum that are technically advanced

6.2. Effects of Schooling

6.2.1. Knowledge- The time students spend in school is directly related to how much they learn. Also Academically oriented schools produce higher rates of learning

6.2.2. Education and Mobility- Years of education is one measure of educational attainment, but where people go to school also affects their mobility.

6.2.3. College-Graduating college will lead to greater employment opportunities.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Round 2 Response to Coleman

7.1.1. Private schools "Do it better" than public schools for low income students.

7.1.2. This debate has not been resolved but expect more research.

7.1.3. Baker and Riordan argued that Catholic schools have became more elite, belying the argument that they are more modern common schools.

7.2. African Americans

7.2.1. 9.3 % of African Americans are likely to drop out of school

7.2.2. African American students lag behind white students in educational achievement and attainment.

7.2.3. 84% of African Americans graduate from high school and 19.9% retrieve a bachelors degree.

8. Education Inequality

8.1. School Financing

8.1.1. Jonathan Kozol wrote Savage Inequalities comparing public schools in affluent suburbs with public schools in poor inner cities.

8.1.2. Public schools are financed through local, state, and federal resources. The majority is finances come from state and local taxes, and local property taxes.

8.1.3. Serrano v. Priest the California Supreme court ruled that the system of unequal school financing between wealthy and poor districts unconstitutional.

8.2. Functionalist Theory

8.2.1. Believe that the role of school is to provide a fair and meritocratic selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family background.

8.2.2. Believe individual talent and hard work based on universal principles of evaluation are more important than ascriptive characteristics bas on principles of evaluation.

8.2.3. There is a persistent relationship between family background and educational outcomes, but this does not in and of itself mean that the systems fails to provide equality of opportunity.

9. Education Reform and School Improvement

9.1. School to work programs

9.1.1. Intent was to extent what had been a vocational emphasis to non-college-bound students regarding skills necessary for successful employment.

9.1.2. President Bill Clinton signed the School-to-Work act in 1993.

9.1.3. Programs were well intentioned but researchers Charner and Mortimer have suggested that these programs often failed to fulfil their promise.

9.2. Full service and Community Schools

9.2.1. Plan to educate not only the whole child, but also the whole community.

9.2.2. Services focus on meeting students' and their families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in a coordinated and collaborative fashion between school and community services.

9.2.3. Designed to target and improve at-risk neighborhoods, full service schools aim to prevent problems as well as to support them.

10. Concept Map About EDUCATION

10.1. 1. Purpose of Education

10.2. 1.1. - To instill values - To promote social cohesion - To create equality - To promote personal freedom - To assist economic development

10.3. 2. OMCYA

10.4. 2.1. - Childcare Regulations - County Childcare Committees - National Childcare Organisations - Child minders

10.5. 2.2. - Free pre-school - Community Childcare Subvention Scheme (CCS) - Childcare Education and Training Support - Programme (CETS)

10.6. 2.3. - Provide a subsidised pre-school year to children in the year before they enter Primary school. - Replaced Early Childcare subsidy - 3 hours of pre-school per day, 5 days a week, and 38 weeks of the year - Uptake greater than 80%

10.7. 3. ECCE

10.8. 3.1. - Compulsory age for attendance – 6 - Pre-schools mostly run by voluntary/private sector - Lack of state investment linked to traditionally strong emphasis on the ‘informal sector’ for welfare provision

10.9. 3.2. often out of the reach of families on low incomes - Some initiatives for disadvantaged groups exist E.g. ‘Early Start’

10.10. 3.3. - No overarching funding system. - Limited state investment – maintains a divide - There is no overarching system for qualifications (changing with Free-preschool year)

10.11. 4. Curriculum Development

10.12. 4.1. - The curriculum, i.e. ‘what is taught’ is a key site of struggle in Irish education - National schools used to be a battle ground for the hearts and minds of children re: colonial power vs Irish nationalism. - After independence - moral socialisation took precedence over all other concerns especially Religion, History and Irish - However religious ideals are no longer as influential in curriculum - Rather, encouraging the value of achievement and preparation for the labour market have become central dynamics in the curriculum.

10.13. 4.2. Certain studies undertaken in Clondalkin (Mc Sorley, 1997) and Finglas (Fagan, 1995) found the curriculum unattractive and irrelevant to working class students. - The system therefore fails to reflect the reality of students from low income Irish families

10.14. 5. Hidden Curriculum

10.15. 5.1. The hidden curriculum consists of those things pupils learn through the experience of attending school rather than the stated educational objectives of such institutions

10.16. 5.1.1. Ivan Illich

10.17. Schools provide four main functions: - Provision of custodial care (keeping children ‘off the streets’) - The distribution of people among occupational roles - The learning of dominant values - The acquisition of socially approved skills and knowledge

10.18. Content: - Organisation of Preschool - Attitudes - Values - School rules - School Curriculum

10.19. 6. Primary School

10.20. 6.1. - Full-time education - AGE 6 - Half (49.2%) of 4 year olds (99.9%) 5 year olds - Schools run by religious orders, multidenominational schools and Gaelscoileanna - 56 nondenominational primary schools (Educate Together)

10.21. 7. Secondary School

10.22. 7.1. Several recent initiatives at second level Transition year: - Leaving certificate vocational programme (LCVP) - Leaving Cert Applied Programme (LCAP) Some of these are aimed at retaining students who might otherwise leave

10.23. 8. Basically, the hidden curriculum is teaching a child manners (like to wait their turn etc.) Without them even noticing that they're learning such things.