BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS

SYST-3002 Winter 2020 Final Assignment - Concept Map

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BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS by Mind Map: BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS

1. People

1.1. Systems Analyst

1.2. Programmer

1.3. Computer Engineer

1.4. Computer Operator

1.5. Database Administrator

1.6. Help Desk/I.T. Support

1.7. Trainer

1.8. CIO/CTO

1.9. Project Manager

1.10. Information Security Officer

2. I.T.

2.1. Productivity Paradox

2.2. "I.T. Doesn't Matter"

2.3. Technology

2.3.1. Proprietary

2.3.2. Infrastructural

2.4. Competitive Advantage

2.4.1. Strategic Information System

2.4.2. Tools

2.4.2.1. Value Chain

2.5. Porter's Five Forces Model

3. Hardware

3.1. Computer

3.1.1. Mobile Computing

3.1.1.1. Laptop/Notebook

3.1.1.2. Smartphone

3.1.1.3. Tablet

3.2. Digital Devices

3.3. Components

3.3.1. CPU

3.3.2. Motherboard

3.3.3. RAM

3.3.4. Hard Drive (HD)

3.3.5. Solid State Drive (SSD)

3.3.6. External Storage

3.3.7. Power Supply

3.3.8. Devices

3.3.8.1. Input

3.3.8.1.1. Keyboard

3.3.8.1.2. Mouse

3.3.8.1.3. Touch Screen

3.3.8.1.4. Light Pen

3.3.8.1.5. Trackball

3.3.8.1.6. Tablet

3.3.8.1.7. Bar Code

3.3.8.1.8. Optical Character Recognition

3.3.8.1.9. Magnetic Ink

3.3.8.2. Output

3.3.8.2.1. Monitors

3.3.8.2.2. Printers

3.3.8.2.3. Voice Output Devices

3.4. Power Factors

3.4.1. Speed

3.4.1.1. Clock Speed

3.4.1.1.1. GHz

3.4.2. Accuracy

3.4.2.1. Increased

3.4.3. Storage

3.4.3.1. Bits

3.4.3.1.1. 8 bits = 1 byte

3.5. Commoditization of Computers

3.5.1. Moore's Law

3.5.1.1. Growth is exponential

4. Software

4.1. Instructions that tell hardware what to do

4.2. Operating System (OS)

4.2.1. Windows (88%)

4.2.2. Mac (10%)

4.2.3. Linux (2%)

4.2.4. Chrome (0%)

4.3. Application Software

4.3.1. Word Processing

4.3.1.1. MS Word

4.3.1.2. Apple Works

4.3.1.3. Google Docs

4.3.2. Spreadsheet

4.3.2.1. MS Excel

4.3.2.2. Google Sheets

4.3.3. Communication

4.3.3.1. Video Conference

4.3.3.2. I.M.

4.3.4. Desktop Publishing

4.3.4.1. Adobe

4.3.5. Presentation

4.3.5.1. MS PowerPoint

4.3.5.2. Google Slides

4.3.6. Database

4.3.6.1. MS Access

4.3.7. Email

4.3.7.1. MS Outlook

4.3.8. Internet Browsers

4.3.8.1. Chrome

4.3.8.2. Mozilla/Firefox

4.3.8.3. Safari

4.3.8.4. Internet Explorer

4.3.9. Multi-media

4.3.9.1. Quick Time

4.3.9.2. Real Player

4.3.10. Enterprise

4.3.10.1. ERP-Oracle

4.3.10.2. SAP

4.3.11. Utility

4.3.11.1. Anti-virus

4.3.12. Programming

4.3.13. Project Management

4.3.14. Accounting/Financial

4.3.15. Graphics

4.3.16. Entertainment

4.3.16.1. Games

4.4. Cloud Computing

4.4.1. Office 365

4.4.2. Google Applications

4.4.3. SaaS

4.4.3.1. Advantages

4.4.3.1.1. No software to install

4.4.3.1.2. Available from any internet accessible computer

4.4.3.1.3. Can be used on a leased or as-needed basis

4.4.3.1.4. Easy to scale to a large number of users

4.4.3.1.5. Information not lost if hard drive crashes or computer is stolen

4.4.3.1.6. Not only limited to the storage on your computer

4.4.3.2. Disadvantages

4.4.3.2.1. Your information is stored on someone else's computer (privacy)

4.4.3.2.2. Requires internet access

4.4.3.2.3. Relying on a 3rd party service = possible service interruptions

4.5. Obtaining Software

4.5.1. Proprietary

4.5.1.1. Create your own

4.5.2. Off-the-Shelf

4.5.2.1. Purchase pre-existing

4.5.3. Open Source

4.5.3.1. Source code available to anyone

5. Data & Databases

5.1. Database

5.1.1. Not always digital

5.1.1.1. Filing Cabinet

5.1.2. Relational

5.1.2.1. Advantages

5.1.2.1.1. Reduced data redundancy

5.1.2.1.2. Easier to modify

5.1.2.1.3. Better access

5.1.2.1.4. Standardization

5.1.2.1.5. Easier to secure

5.1.2.1.6. Shared data and information

5.1.2.2. Disadvantages

5.1.2.2.1. More complex to setup/operate

5.1.2.2.2. More difficult to recover from failure

5.1.2.2.3. Expensive to obtain and maintain

5.1.2.3. Creation

5.1.2.3.1. Normalization

5.1.2.3.2. Entity Relationship Diagram

5.1.3. Flat File

5.1.3.1. Table created in Excel

5.1.3.2. Phone book

5.1.4. Single User

5.1.4.1. Microsoft Access

5.1.4.2. Filemaker Pro

5.1.5. Multiple User

5.1.5.1. Oracle

5.1.5.2. Sybase

5.1.5.3. IBM

5.1.6. DBMS Information Retrieval Tools

5.1.6.1. Query by Example (QBE)

5.1.6.2. Structured Query Language (SQL)

5.2. Database Management System

5.2.1. Microsoft Access

5.3. Data Hierarchy

5.3.1. Database

5.3.1.1. File

5.3.1.1.1. Record

6. Networking & Communication

6.1. Data Communication

6.1.1. Modem

6.1.2. Medium

6.1.3. Bandwidth

6.1.4. Broadband

6.1.5. Narrowband

6.2. History of Data Communication

6.3. Networks

6.3.1. LAN

6.3.1.1. Building/Campus

6.3.2. MAN

6.3.2.1. City

6.3.3. WAN

6.3.3.1. Country/Continent

6.4. Network Concepts

6.4.1. Packet

6.4.2. Bridge

6.4.3. Hub

6.4.4. Router

6.4.5. TCP

6.4.6. IP

6.4.7. Client Server Model

6.4.7.1. Wireless Network

6.4.7.2. Mobile/Cellular Network

6.4.7.2.1. Advantages

6.4.7.2.2. Disadvantages

6.5. The Internet

6.5.1. Is physical!

6.5.2. History

6.5.2.1. ARPANET

6.5.3. The World Wide Web (www.)

6.5.3.1. Domain name

6.5.3.2. URL

6.5.3.3. HTML

6.5.3.4. Web browser

6.5.3.5. Evolution

6.5.3.5.1. Web 1.0: Static

6.5.3.5.2. Web 2.0 Social

6.5.3.5.3. Web 3.0: Semantic

6.5.3.5.4. Web 4.0: Mobile

6.5.3.5.5. Web 5.0: Emotional

6.5.3.6. Organizational Networking

6.5.3.6.1. Intranet

6.5.3.6.2. Extranet

7. Security

7.1. Cybercrime

7.1.1. Types

7.1.1.1. Denial of Service

7.1.1.2. Identity Theft

7.1.1.3. Software Piracy

7.1.1.4. Spam

7.1.1.5. Malware (virus, worms, Trojans)

7.1.1.6. Espionage

7.1.1.7. Hacking

7.1.1.8. Insider Crime

7.1.1.9. Social Engineering

7.1.2. Threats

7.1.2.1. Phishing (22%)

7.1.2.2. Malware (20%)

7.1.2.3. Cyberattacks to disrupt (13%)

7.1.2.4. Cyberattacks to steal money (12%)

7.1.2.5. Fraud (10%)

7.1.2.6. Cyberattacks to steal IP (8%)

7.1.2.7. Spam (6%)

7.1.2.8. Internal attacks (5%)

7.1.2.9. Natural disasters (2%)

7.1.2.10. Espionage (2%)

7.1.3. Unauthorized Access

7.1.3.1. Spyware

7.1.3.2. Adware

7.1.3.3. Phishing

7.1.3.4. Pharming

7.1.3.5. Keystroke Loggers

7.1.3.6. Sniffing

7.1.3.7. Spoofing

7.1.4. Information Security Triad

7.1.4.1. CIA Triangle

7.1.4.1.1. Confidentiality

7.1.4.1.2. Security

7.1.4.1.3. Accuracy

7.1.5. Security Measures

7.1.5.1. Authentication

7.1.5.1.1. Passwords

7.1.5.1.2. Token

7.1.5.1.3. Multi-factor identification

7.1.5.1.4. Biometrics

7.1.5.2. Prevention

7.1.5.2.1. Access controls

7.1.5.2.2. Data encryption

7.1.5.2.3. Backups

7.1.5.2.4. Antivirus programs

7.1.5.2.5. Firewalls

7.1.5.2.6. Physical security

7.1.5.2.7. Virtual private networks (VPNs)

7.1.5.3. Detection

7.1.5.3.1. Intrusion detection systems

7.1.5.4. Security Policy

8. Ethical & Legal Issues

8.1. Ethics

8.2. Information Ethics

8.3. Code of Ethics

8.4. Workplace Information Management Policies

8.4.1. Computer use

8.4.2. Information privacy

8.4.2.1. Federal privacy laws

8.4.2.1.1. Privacy Act

8.4.2.1.2. PIPEDA

8.4.2.2. Provincial privacy laws

8.4.2.2.1. FIPPA

8.4.2.2.2. MFIPPA

8.4.2.2.3. PHIPA

8.4.2.3. Non-Obvious Relationship Awareness (NORA)

8.4.3. Acceptable use

8.4.4. Email privacy

8.4.5. Social media

8.4.6. Workplace monitoring

8.5. Intellectual Property & Copyright

8.5.1. Intellectual property

8.5.1.1. Patent

8.5.1.2. Trademark

8.5.1.3. Copyright

8.5.1.3.1. Creative commons

8.5.1.3.2. Fair use

8.5.1.4. Piracy

8.5.2. Piracy

8.5.3. Cybersquatting

8.6. Protecting Privacy

8.6.1. Individuals

8.6.1.1. Privacy policies

8.6.1.2. Limit access of personal information

8.6.1.3. Request/reveal stored information

8.6.1.4. Delete cookies

8.6.1.5. Use anonymizer software or secure browsers

8.6.2. Organizations

8.6.2.1. Prevent misuse of data

8.6.2.2. Data collections needs a stated purpose

8.6.2.3. Users should be able to review stored information

8.6.2.4. Monitor data collection

8.6.2.5. Provide a way to prevent information from being shared

8.7. Information System Issues

8.7.1. Censorship

8.7.2. Digital legacies

8.7.2.1. FOREVER!

8.7.3. Digital divide

8.7.4. Internet addiction

8.7.5. Work/life balance

8.7.6. Health impacts

8.7.7. Green computing

8.7.7.1. E-waste

8.7.7.2. Electronics recycling

9. E-Business

9.1. E-Commerce

9.1.1. Advantages

9.1.1.1. Expanding markets and increase market share

9.1.1.2. Reduce costs and increase profitability

9.1.1.3. Improve operations (customer service)

9.1.1.4. Improve effectiveness (accuracy, efficiency)

9.1.1.5. Reduce intermediaries

9.1.1.5.1. Disintermediation

9.1.2. Disadvantages

9.1.2.1. Technical issues

9.1.2.2. Security issues

9.1.2.3. Accessibility

9.2. Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce Cycle

9.3. E-Commerce in Canada

9.3.1. 80% of Canadians shop online

9.3.2. 10.9 online purchases per year

9.4. E-Commerce Categories

9.4.1. Consumer

9.4.1.1. C2C

9.4.1.2. C2B

9.4.1.3. G2C

9.4.2. Business

9.4.2.1. B2C

9.4.2.2. B2B

9.4.2.3. G2B

9.4.3. Government

9.4.3.1. G2C

9.4.3.2. B2B

9.4.3.3. G2G

9.5. E-Commerce Models

9.5.1. Merchant model

9.5.1.1. Amazon

9.5.1.2. Dell

9.5.2. Brokerage model

9.5.2.1. eBay

9.5.3. Advertising model

9.5.3.1. Google

9.5.4. Mixed model

9.5.5. Infomediary model

9.5.6. Subscription model

9.5.6.1. Netlflix

9.5.6.2. iTunes

9.5.6.3. Newspapers

9.6. Mobile Commerce and Voice Based

9.6.1. m-Commerce

9.6.1.1. Handheld devices complete transactions online

9.6.2. Voice based

9.6.2.1. Voice recognition and text-to-speech technology

9.7. Electronic Payment Systems

9.7.1. EFT

9.7.2. Digital cash (prepaid card)

9.7.3. E-cash

9.7.4. Virtual wallet

9.7.5. Paypal

9.7.6. Micropayments

9.7.7. BitCoin

9.8. Web Marketing Terms

9.8.1. Ad impression

9.8.2. Banner ads

9.8.3. Click through rate (CTR)

9.8.4. Cookie

9.8.5. Hit

9.8.6. Page view

9.8.7. Pop-up ads

9.8.8. Meta-lag

9.8.9. Spot leasing

9.9. Social Commerce and New Retail

9.9.1. Social commerce

9.9.1.1. Online shopping influenced by social networks

9.9.2. New retail

9.9.2.1. Redefining commerce by enabling seamless engagement between online and offline world

10. Enterprise Applications

10.1. Business Process

10.1.1. Process diagram

10.1.2. Business Process Management (BPM)

10.1.2.1. Key benefits

10.1.2.1.1. Empowering employees

10.1.2.1.2. Built-in reporting

10.1.2.1.3. Enforcing best practices

10.1.2.1.4. Enforcing consistency

10.1.3. Business process re-engineering

10.1.3.1. Advantages

10.1.3.1.1. Decreased costs and cycle times

10.1.3.1.2. Increased productivity

10.1.3.1.3. Improved quality and customer service

10.1.3.1.4. Improved competitive position

10.1.3.2. Disadvantages

10.1.3.2.1. Decreased employee morale

10.1.3.2.2. Potential of reduced staff

10.1.3.2.3. Incomplete impact analysis

10.1.3.2.4. All or nothing approach

10.2. Business Information Systems

10.2.1. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

10.2.1.1. One function/activity

10.2.1.1.1. Reservation systems

10.2.1.1.2. POS systems

10.2.1.1.3. Cheque clearing systems

10.2.2. Enterprise Systems (ERP)

10.2.2.1. Multiple functions/activities

10.2.2.1.1. SAP

10.2.2.1.2. Microsoft

10.2.2.1.3. Oracle

10.2.2.2. Modules and components

10.2.2.2.1. Planning

10.2.2.2.2. Manufacturing

10.2.2.2.3. Logistics

10.2.2.2.4. Customers and sales

10.2.2.2.5. Reporting

10.2.2.2.6. HR

10.2.2.2.7. Accounting and finance

10.2.2.2.8. Vendors and purchasing

10.2.2.3. Benefits

10.2.2.3.1. Availability and timeliness

10.2.2.3.2. Data accuracy

10.2.2.3.3. Decreased costs

10.2.2.3.4. Improved planning and scheduling

10.2.2.3.5. Improved relationships

10.2.2.3.6. Improved work processes

10.2.2.4. Concerns

10.2.2.4.1. High cost to implement

10.2.2.4.2. Difficulties implementing = high failure rate

10.2.2.4.3. Requires extensive training

10.2.2.4.4. Incompatibility with legacy systems

10.2.2.4.5. Commoditize business processes

10.2.2.5. Types of software solutions

10.2.2.5.1. Supply chain management system

10.2.2.5.2. Customer relationship management (CRM) system

10.2.2.5.3. Knowledge management

11. Systems Development

11.1. Life Cycle

11.1.1. "A waterfall approach"

11.1.2. 5 stages

11.1.2.1. Planning

11.1.2.1.1. Determine feasibility

11.1.2.1.2. Project team

11.1.2.2. Analysis

11.1.2.2.1. Generate requirements

11.1.2.2.2. Approaches

11.1.2.3. Design

11.1.2.3.1. Description of specifications

11.1.2.3.2. Tools and processes

11.1.2.4. Development, Testing, Implementation

11.1.2.4.1. Development methodologies

11.1.2.4.2. End-user computing/development

11.1.2.4.3. Implementation methodologies

11.1.2.5. Maintenance

11.2. Build vs. Buy Approach

11.2.1. Advantages of buying

11.2.1.1. Less expensive than building

11.2.1.2. Readily available

11.2.1.3. Include support and updates

11.2.1.4. State-of-the-art technology

11.2.1.5. Flexibility

11.2.2. Advantages of building

11.2.2.1. Customize to suit your needs

11.2.2.2. Unique to your competition

11.2.2.3. Retain control of system and data

11.2.2.4. Not dependent on vendor

12. Decision Support Systems

12.1. Decision Making Process

12.1.1. Models

12.1.1.1. Satisficing model

12.1.1.2. Optimization model

12.2. Organizational Decision Types

12.2.1. Unstructured decisions

12.2.2. Semi-structured decisions

12.2.3. Structured decisions

12.3. Information Classification

12.3.1. Strategic

12.3.2. Managerial

12.3.3. Operational

12.4. Management Support Systems

12.4.1. Transaction Processing System (TPS)

12.4.1.1. Speed and accuracy at operational level

12.4.2. Management Information System (MIS)

12.4.2.1. Managerial level

12.4.3. Decision Support System (DSS)

12.4.3.1. Strategic level

12.4.3.2. Support analysis capabilities

12.4.3.2.1. What-if analysis

12.4.3.2.2. Sensitivity analysis

12.4.3.2.3. Goal seek analysis

12.4.3.2.4. Optimization analysis

12.4.4. Executive Information Systems (EIS)

12.4.4.1. A form of DSS

12.5. Sources of Business Data

12.5.1. System inputs

12.5.1.1. Internal TPS

12.5.1.2. Internal ERP

12.5.1.3. External sources

12.5.2. System outputs

12.5.2.1. Visualization

12.5.2.2. Infographics

12.5.2.3. Chart

12.5.2.4. Dashboards

12.5.2.5. GIS

12.6. Data Terms

12.6.1. Data warehouse

12.6.1.1. Data mart

12.6.2. Data mining

12.6.3. Business intelligence and analytics

12.6.4. Big data

12.6.4.1. 3 dimensions

12.6.4.1.1. Volume

12.6.4.1.2. Variety

12.6.4.1.3. Velocity

13. A.I.

13.1. Artificial Intelligence

13.1.1. Narrow A.I.

13.1.2. Broad A.I.

13.1.3. AIaas

13.1.4. Algorithm

13.1.4.1. Condition/action

13.1.5. Industry 4.0

13.2. Types of A.I.

13.2.1. Reactive machines

13.2.1.1. IBM Deep Blue

13.2.1.2. Alpha Go

13.2.2. Limited memory

13.2.2.1. Self-driving cars

13.2.3. Theory of mind

13.2.3.1. *doesn't exist yet*

13.2.4. Self-awareness

13.2.4.1. *doesn't exist yet*

13.3. A.I. vs. Natural Intelligence

13.3.1. Creativity and imagination

13.3.1.1. Natural - high, Artificial - low

13.3.2. Learn from experience

13.3.2.1. Natural - high, Artificial - med

13.3.3. Use sensors

13.3.3.1. Natural - high, Artificial - med

13.3.4. Adapt to new situations

13.3.4.1. Natural - high, Artificial - med

13.3.5. Perform complex calculations

13.3.5.1. Natural - high, Artificial - high

13.3.6. Transfer information

13.3.6.1. Natural - high, Artificial - high

13.3.7. Perform calculations accurately and efficiently

13.3.7.1. Natural - high, Artificial - high

13.4. A.I. Technology

13.4.1. Automation

13.4.2. Robots

13.4.2.1. Advantages

13.4.2.1.1. Improved product quality

13.4.2.1.2. Improved efficiency

13.4.2.1.3. Work in hazardous conditions

13.4.2.1.4. Good at repetitive tasks

13.4.2.1.5. Consistent

13.4.2.2. Disadvantages

13.4.2.2.1. Job loss

13.4.2.2.2. Cannot adapt quickly

13.4.2.2.3. Requires maintenance

13.4.2.2.4. Large initial investment

13.4.3. Machine learning (ML)

13.4.4. Deep learning

13.4.5. Expert systems

13.4.5.1. Advantages

13.4.5.1.1. Incorporate the expertise of many

13.4.5.1.2. Acts as a knowledge base (preserves expertise)

13.4.5.1.3. Provides consistency in decision making

13.4.5.2. Disadvantages

13.4.5.2.1. Too many rules can slow down processing speed

13.4.5.2.2. Hard to apply to a broad range of topics

13.4.5.2.3. Hard to apply with disagreement upon experts

13.4.5.2.4. N/A when decision requires information from senses

13.4.6. Machine vision

13.4.7. Natural language processing (NLP)

13.4.8. Intelligent agents

13.4.9. Virtual reality (VR)

13.4.10. Augmented reality (AR)