SYST-3002 Winter 2020 Final Assignment - Concept Map

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address

1. People

1.1. Systems Analyst

1.2. Programmer

1.3. Computer Engineer

1.4. Computer Operator

1.5. Database Administrator

1.6. Help Desk/I.T. Support

1.7. Trainer

1.8. CIO/CTO

1.9. Project Manager

1.10. Information Security Officer

2. I.T.

2.1. Productivity Paradox

2.2. "I.T. Doesn't Matter"

2.3. Technology

2.3.1. Proprietary

2.3.2. Infrastructural

2.4. Competitive Advantage

2.4.1. Strategic Information System

2.4.2. Tools Value Chain

2.5. Porter's Five Forces Model

3. Hardware

3.1. Computer

3.1.1. Mobile Computing Laptop/Notebook Smartphone Tablet

3.2. Digital Devices

3.3. Components

3.3.1. CPU

3.3.2. Motherboard

3.3.3. RAM

3.3.4. Hard Drive (HD)

3.3.5. Solid State Drive (SSD)

3.3.6. External Storage

3.3.7. Power Supply

3.3.8. Devices Input Keyboard Mouse Touch Screen Light Pen Trackball Tablet Bar Code Optical Character Recognition Magnetic Ink Output Monitors Printers Voice Output Devices

3.4. Power Factors

3.4.1. Speed Clock Speed GHz

3.4.2. Accuracy Increased

3.4.3. Storage Bits 8 bits = 1 byte

3.5. Commoditization of Computers

3.5.1. Moore's Law Growth is exponential

4. Software

4.1. Instructions that tell hardware what to do

4.2. Operating System (OS)

4.2.1. Windows (88%)

4.2.2. Mac (10%)

4.2.3. Linux (2%)

4.2.4. Chrome (0%)

4.3. Application Software

4.3.1. Word Processing MS Word Apple Works Google Docs

4.3.2. Spreadsheet MS Excel Google Sheets

4.3.3. Communication Video Conference I.M.

4.3.4. Desktop Publishing Adobe

4.3.5. Presentation MS PowerPoint Google Slides

4.3.6. Database MS Access

4.3.7. Email MS Outlook

4.3.8. Internet Browsers Chrome Mozilla/Firefox Safari Internet Explorer

4.3.9. Multi-media Quick Time Real Player

4.3.10. Enterprise ERP-Oracle SAP

4.3.11. Utility Anti-virus

4.3.12. Programming

4.3.13. Project Management

4.3.14. Accounting/Financial

4.3.15. Graphics

4.3.16. Entertainment Games

4.4. Cloud Computing

4.4.1. Office 365

4.4.2. Google Applications

4.4.3. SaaS Advantages No software to install Available from any internet accessible computer Can be used on a leased or as-needed basis Easy to scale to a large number of users Information not lost if hard drive crashes or computer is stolen Not only limited to the storage on your computer Disadvantages Your information is stored on someone else's computer (privacy) Requires internet access Relying on a 3rd party service = possible service interruptions

4.5. Obtaining Software

4.5.1. Proprietary Create your own

4.5.2. Off-the-Shelf Purchase pre-existing

4.5.3. Open Source Source code available to anyone

5. Data & Databases

5.1. Database

5.1.1. Not always digital Filing Cabinet

5.1.2. Relational Advantages Reduced data redundancy Easier to modify Better access Standardization Easier to secure Shared data and information Disadvantages More complex to setup/operate More difficult to recover from failure Expensive to obtain and maintain Creation Normalization Entity Relationship Diagram

5.1.3. Flat File Table created in Excel Phone book

5.1.4. Single User Microsoft Access Filemaker Pro

5.1.5. Multiple User Oracle Sybase IBM

5.1.6. DBMS Information Retrieval Tools Query by Example (QBE) Structured Query Language (SQL)

5.2. Database Management System

5.2.1. Microsoft Access

5.3. Data Hierarchy

5.3.1. Database File Record

6. Networking & Communication

6.1. Data Communication

6.1.1. Modem

6.1.2. Medium

6.1.3. Bandwidth

6.1.4. Broadband

6.1.5. Narrowband

6.2. History of Data Communication

6.3. Networks

6.3.1. LAN Building/Campus

6.3.2. MAN City

6.3.3. WAN Country/Continent

6.4. Network Concepts

6.4.1. Packet

6.4.2. Bridge

6.4.3. Hub

6.4.4. Router

6.4.5. TCP

6.4.6. IP

6.4.7. Client Server Model Wireless Network Mobile/Cellular Network Advantages Disadvantages

6.5. The Internet

6.5.1. Is physical!

6.5.2. History ARPANET

6.5.3. The World Wide Web (www.) Domain name URL HTML Web browser Evolution Web 1.0: Static Web 2.0 Social Web 3.0: Semantic Web 4.0: Mobile Web 5.0: Emotional Organizational Networking Intranet Extranet

7. Security

7.1. Cybercrime

7.1.1. Types Denial of Service Identity Theft Software Piracy Spam Malware (virus, worms, Trojans) Espionage Hacking Insider Crime Social Engineering

7.1.2. Threats Phishing (22%) Malware (20%) Cyberattacks to disrupt (13%) Cyberattacks to steal money (12%) Fraud (10%) Cyberattacks to steal IP (8%) Spam (6%) Internal attacks (5%) Natural disasters (2%) Espionage (2%)

7.1.3. Unauthorized Access Spyware Adware Phishing Pharming Keystroke Loggers Sniffing Spoofing

7.1.4. Information Security Triad CIA Triangle Confidentiality Security Accuracy

7.1.5. Security Measures Authentication Passwords Token Multi-factor identification Biometrics Prevention Access controls Data encryption Backups Antivirus programs Firewalls Physical security Virtual private networks (VPNs) Detection Intrusion detection systems Security Policy

8. Ethical & Legal Issues

8.1. Ethics

8.2. Information Ethics

8.3. Code of Ethics

8.4. Workplace Information Management Policies

8.4.1. Computer use

8.4.2. Information privacy Federal privacy laws Privacy Act PIPEDA Provincial privacy laws FIPPA MFIPPA PHIPA Non-Obvious Relationship Awareness (NORA)

8.4.3. Acceptable use

8.4.4. Email privacy

8.4.5. Social media

8.4.6. Workplace monitoring

8.5. Intellectual Property & Copyright

8.5.1. Intellectual property Patent Trademark Copyright Creative commons Fair use Piracy

8.5.2. Piracy

8.5.3. Cybersquatting

8.6. Protecting Privacy

8.6.1. Individuals Privacy policies Limit access of personal information Request/reveal stored information Delete cookies Use anonymizer software or secure browsers

8.6.2. Organizations Prevent misuse of data Data collections needs a stated purpose Users should be able to review stored information Monitor data collection Provide a way to prevent information from being shared

8.7. Information System Issues

8.7.1. Censorship

8.7.2. Digital legacies FOREVER!

8.7.3. Digital divide

8.7.4. Internet addiction

8.7.5. Work/life balance

8.7.6. Health impacts

8.7.7. Green computing E-waste Electronics recycling

9. E-Business

9.1. E-Commerce

9.1.1. Advantages Expanding markets and increase market share Reduce costs and increase profitability Improve operations (customer service) Improve effectiveness (accuracy, efficiency) Reduce intermediaries Disintermediation

9.1.2. Disadvantages Technical issues Security issues Accessibility

9.2. Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce Cycle

9.3. E-Commerce in Canada

9.3.1. 80% of Canadians shop online

9.3.2. 10.9 online purchases per year

9.4. E-Commerce Categories

9.4.1. Consumer C2C C2B G2C

9.4.2. Business B2C B2B G2B

9.4.3. Government G2C B2B G2G

9.5. E-Commerce Models

9.5.1. Merchant model Amazon Dell

9.5.2. Brokerage model eBay

9.5.3. Advertising model Google

9.5.4. Mixed model

9.5.5. Infomediary model

9.5.6. Subscription model Netlflix iTunes Newspapers

9.6. Mobile Commerce and Voice Based

9.6.1. m-Commerce Handheld devices complete transactions online

9.6.2. Voice based Voice recognition and text-to-speech technology

9.7. Electronic Payment Systems

9.7.1. EFT

9.7.2. Digital cash (prepaid card)

9.7.3. E-cash

9.7.4. Virtual wallet

9.7.5. Paypal

9.7.6. Micropayments

9.7.7. BitCoin

9.8. Web Marketing Terms

9.8.1. Ad impression

9.8.2. Banner ads

9.8.3. Click through rate (CTR)

9.8.4. Cookie

9.8.5. Hit

9.8.6. Page view

9.8.7. Pop-up ads

9.8.8. Meta-lag

9.8.9. Spot leasing

9.9. Social Commerce and New Retail

9.9.1. Social commerce Online shopping influenced by social networks

9.9.2. New retail Redefining commerce by enabling seamless engagement between online and offline world

10. Enterprise Applications

10.1. Business Process

10.1.1. Process diagram

10.1.2. Business Process Management (BPM) Key benefits Empowering employees Built-in reporting Enforcing best practices Enforcing consistency

10.1.3. Business process re-engineering Advantages Decreased costs and cycle times Increased productivity Improved quality and customer service Improved competitive position Disadvantages Decreased employee morale Potential of reduced staff Incomplete impact analysis All or nothing approach

10.2. Business Information Systems

10.2.1. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) One function/activity Reservation systems POS systems Cheque clearing systems

10.2.2. Enterprise Systems (ERP) Multiple functions/activities SAP Microsoft Oracle Modules and components Planning Manufacturing Logistics Customers and sales Reporting HR Accounting and finance Vendors and purchasing Benefits Availability and timeliness Data accuracy Decreased costs Improved planning and scheduling Improved relationships Improved work processes Concerns High cost to implement Difficulties implementing = high failure rate Requires extensive training Incompatibility with legacy systems Commoditize business processes Types of software solutions Supply chain management system Customer relationship management (CRM) system Knowledge management

11. Systems Development

11.1. Life Cycle

11.1.1. "A waterfall approach"

11.1.2. 5 stages Planning Determine feasibility Project team Analysis Generate requirements Approaches Design Description of specifications Tools and processes Development, Testing, Implementation Development methodologies End-user computing/development Implementation methodologies Maintenance

11.2. Build vs. Buy Approach

11.2.1. Advantages of buying Less expensive than building Readily available Include support and updates State-of-the-art technology Flexibility

11.2.2. Advantages of building Customize to suit your needs Unique to your competition Retain control of system and data Not dependent on vendor

12. Decision Support Systems

12.1. Decision Making Process

12.1.1. Models Satisficing model Optimization model

12.2. Organizational Decision Types

12.2.1. Unstructured decisions

12.2.2. Semi-structured decisions

12.2.3. Structured decisions

12.3. Information Classification

12.3.1. Strategic

12.3.2. Managerial

12.3.3. Operational

12.4. Management Support Systems

12.4.1. Transaction Processing System (TPS) Speed and accuracy at operational level

12.4.2. Management Information System (MIS) Managerial level

12.4.3. Decision Support System (DSS) Strategic level Support analysis capabilities What-if analysis Sensitivity analysis Goal seek analysis Optimization analysis

12.4.4. Executive Information Systems (EIS) A form of DSS

12.5. Sources of Business Data

12.5.1. System inputs Internal TPS Internal ERP External sources

12.5.2. System outputs Visualization Infographics Chart Dashboards GIS

12.6. Data Terms

12.6.1. Data warehouse Data mart

12.6.2. Data mining

12.6.3. Business intelligence and analytics

12.6.4. Big data 3 dimensions Volume Variety Velocity

13. A.I.

13.1. Artificial Intelligence

13.1.1. Narrow A.I.

13.1.2. Broad A.I.

13.1.3. AIaas

13.1.4. Algorithm Condition/action

13.1.5. Industry 4.0

13.2. Types of A.I.

13.2.1. Reactive machines IBM Deep Blue Alpha Go

13.2.2. Limited memory Self-driving cars

13.2.3. Theory of mind *doesn't exist yet*

13.2.4. Self-awareness *doesn't exist yet*

13.3. A.I. vs. Natural Intelligence

13.3.1. Creativity and imagination Natural - high, Artificial - low

13.3.2. Learn from experience Natural - high, Artificial - med

13.3.3. Use sensors Natural - high, Artificial - med

13.3.4. Adapt to new situations Natural - high, Artificial - med

13.3.5. Perform complex calculations Natural - high, Artificial - high

13.3.6. Transfer information Natural - high, Artificial - high

13.3.7. Perform calculations accurately and efficiently Natural - high, Artificial - high

13.4. A.I. Technology

13.4.1. Automation

13.4.2. Robots Advantages Improved product quality Improved efficiency Work in hazardous conditions Good at repetitive tasks Consistent Disadvantages Job loss Cannot adapt quickly Requires maintenance Large initial investment

13.4.3. Machine learning (ML)

13.4.4. Deep learning

13.4.5. Expert systems Advantages Incorporate the expertise of many Acts as a knowledge base (preserves expertise) Provides consistency in decision making Disadvantages Too many rules can slow down processing speed Hard to apply to a broad range of topics Hard to apply with disagreement upon experts N/A when decision requires information from senses

13.4.6. Machine vision

13.4.7. Natural language processing (NLP)

13.4.8. Intelligent agents

13.4.9. Virtual reality (VR)

13.4.10. Augmented reality (AR)