Personality Approaches

Gerardo Fernpád

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Personality Approaches by Mind Map: Personality Approaches

1. Sanguine (red-heart)

2. Historical Perspective

2.1. Franz Gall

2.1.1. Proposed that: distance betweenbumpson the skull reveal personal traits Phrenology

2.2. Hippocrates

2.2.1. Human behaviors are based on4temperaments Choleric (yellow-liver)

3. Melancholic (black-liver)

4. PsychodynamicPerspectiveFreud

4.1. Stages of Psychosexual Development

4.1.1. Oral 0-1

4.1.2. Anal 1-3

4.1.3. Phallic (genitals) 3-6

4.1.4. Latency (None) 6-12

4.1.5. Genital 12+

4.2. Unconscious

4.2.1. EGO Id & Superego

4.3. Defense Mechanisms

4.3.1. Denial

4.3.2. Displacement Low: uncooperative

4.3.3. Projection

4.3.4. Reaction Formation

4.3.5. Repression

4.3.6. Sublimation

5. Incongruence can lead to maladjustment

6. Neo-Freudians

6.1. Adler

6.1.1. Social tasks Occupational tasks Societal tasks Love tasks

6.1.2. Inferiority complex

6.1.3. Superiority complex

6.2. Erikson

6.2.1. Interpersonal relationships are more important tnat sexual energy

6.2.2. Personality is developed throught your life

6.2.3. Stages of Psychosocial crisis autonomy vs. shame (will) 1-3 initiative vs. guilt (purpose) 3-5 industry vs. inferiority (competency) 5-12 identity vs. role confusion (fidelity) 12-18 intimacy vs. isolation (love) 18-40 generativity vs. stagnation (care) 40-65 Ego integrity vs. despair (wisdom) 65+

6.3. Jung

6.3.1. The collective unconscious is a universal version of the unconscious. Mental patterns or memory traces These acestral memories are called archetypes

6.3.2. 2 attitudes or approaches towards life extroversion introversion The focus of analytical pshycology is on working to balance opposing forces of conscius and unconscious thought and experience within one´s personality.

6.4. Horney

6.4.1. Copying styles Moving towards people Afiliation and dependence Moving against people Agression and manipulation Moving away from people Detachment and isolation

6.4.2. Each individual has the potential forself-realization.

7. We experience incongruence when thereisadiscrepancy between our ideal andattitude

8. Behavioral Perspective

8.1. Skinner

8.1.1. Nurture over nature Personality traits are not inborn Maslow Hierarchy of needs theory Behave on prior learning

8.1.2. Behave in a certain way Theory of birth order The middle ones will help both get along. The youngest will be spoiled. Personality develops over our entire life not only the first few years Increasing the ones that lead to positive results

8.2. Bandura (social-cognitive)

8.2.1. Reciprocal Determinism

8.2.2. Observational Learning Personality is shaped by actions

8.2.3. Learning new behavior patterns when we see others performing them.

8.2.4. Decrease the ones that don´t

8.2.5. Self-Efficacy

9. Humanistic Approaches

9.1. Carl Rogers

9.1.1. Divided the self Ideal: the person you would like to be Real: the person you actually are

9.1.2. We experience congruence when our thoughts about our real and ideal self are similar

10. Biological Approaches

10.1. Minessota

10.2. Somatoypes

10.2.1. Endomorph Average-size bones, solid torso, low levels of fat, very sociable and fun

10.2.2. Mesomorph Equilibrates body of muscles and bones, athletic. Very energetic and like sports

10.2.3. Ectomorph Tall, thin. Very emotional, suffer social problems

11. Rationalization

12. Regression

13. Traits Approach

13.1. The Five Factor Model (OCEAN)

13.1.1. Oppennes High: curious, independent. Low: practical, conventional

13.1.2. Conscientiousness: High: hardworking, organized Low: impulsive, careless

13.1.3. Extroversions High: outgoing, warm Low: quite, reserved

13.1.4. Agreebleness High: helpful, empathetic

13.1.5. Neuroticism High: anxious, unhappy Low: calm, secure

14. Cultural Understanding

14.1. Universal

14.1.1. Some personality traits dont depend on culture.

14.2. Culture-specific

14.2.1. Asian: collectivism

14.2.2. Central & South American: openness

14.2.3. European: neuroticism

14.3. Study Approaches

14.3.1. Cultural-comparative

14.3.2. Combines

15. Individual Psychology

16. Our level of confidence in our abilities to approach challenges and reach goals.

17. trust vs. mistrust (hope) 0-1

18. Indigenous

19. HIgh congruence leads to greater sense of healthy andproductive life

20. Twins even when they are separated they have pretty similar personalities.