Personality approaches

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Personality approaches by Mind Map: Personality approaches

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4. Psychodynamic perspective Freud

4.1. Stages of psychosexual development

4.1.1. Oral 0-1

4.1.2. Anal 1-3

4.1.3. Phallic (genital) 3-6

4.1.4. Latency (none) 6-12

4.1.5. Genial +12

4.2. Unconscious

4.3. EGO

4.3.1. Id & superego

4.4. Defense Mechanisms

4.4.1. Denial

4.4.2. Displacement Low:uncooperative

4.4.3. Projection

4.4.4. Rationalization

4.4.5. Reaction formation

4.4.6. Regression

4.4.7. Repression

4.4.8. Sublimation

4.4.9. Sublimation

5. Neo-Freudians

5.1. Adler

5.1.1. Superiority complex

5.1.2. Social tasks Societal tasks Love tasks Occupational tasks

5.2. Inferiority complex

5.3. Erikson

5.3.1. Personality is developed throughout your life

5.3.2. Stages of psychosocial crisis Autonomy vs shame (will) 1-3 Initiative vs Guilt (purpose) 3-5 Industry vs inferiority (competency )5-12 Identity vs role confusion (fidelity) 12-18 Intimacy vs isolation (love) 18-40 Generativity vs stagnation (care ) 40-65 Ego integrity vs despair (wisdom) 65+ Trust vs mistrust (hope) 0-1

5.3.3. Interpersonal relationship are more important tan sexual energy

5.4. Jung

5.4.1. The collective unconscious is a universal version of the unconscious Mental patterns or memory traces These ancestral memories are called archetypes

5.4.2. 2 attitudes or approaches towards life Introversion Extroversion

5.4.3. The focus of analytics of psychology is on working to balance opposing forces of conscious and unconscious thought and experience within ones personality

5.5. Horney

5.5.1. Each individual has the potential for self realization Coping styles Moving against people Moving away from people Moving toward people

6. Biological approaches

6.1. Minessota

6.1.1. Twins even when we are separated that have pretty similar personalities

6.2. Somatoypes

6.2.1. Endomorph Average size bones, solid torso, low levels of fat, sociable and fun

6.2.2. Mesomorph Equilibrarse body of muscles and bones. Energetic and like sports

6.2.3. Ectomorph Tall, thin, emotional and with social problems.

7. Traits approaches

7.1. The five factor model (OCEAN)

7.1.1. Oppenes High: curious and independent Low: impulsive and conventional

7.1.2. Conscientiousness High: organized and hardworking Low: impulsive careless

7.1.3. Extroversion Low: quiet, reserves High: outgoing, warm High: outgoing, warm

7.1.4. Agreeableness

7.1.5. High: helpful and emphatic

7.1.6. Neuroticism High: anxious, unhappy Low: Calm, secure

8. Cultural understandings

8.1. Universal

8.1.1. Some personality traits don’t depend on culture

8.2. Culture- specific

8.2.1. Asian: collectivism

8.2.2. Central and South African: openness 

8.2.3. European: neuroticism

8.2.4. Indigenous

8.2.5. Indigenous

8.3. South approaches

8.3.1. Cultural-comparative

8.3.2. Combiness

9. Behavioral perspective

9.1. Skinner

9.1.1. Nurture over nature Personality traits are not inborn

9.2. Maslow

9.2.1. Hierarchy of needs theory Self actualization e Esteem needs Love needs Safety needs Physiological needs People were motivated by feelings of inferiority in childhood

9.3. Behave on prior learning

9.3.1. Behave in certain way

9.3.2. Theory of birth order The youngest will be spoiled The middle ones will help get both along Older siblings will be overachievers

9.3.3. Personality develops over our entire life not only the first few years Increasing the ones that lead to positive results

9.4. Bandura (social-cognitive )

9.4.1. Reciprocal determinism

9.4.2. Observational learning Personality is shaped by actions

9.4.3. Learning new behavior patterns when we see others performing them

9.4.4. Decrease the ones that don’t

9.4.5. Self efficacy

10. Humanistic approaches

10.1. Carl Rogers

10.2. We experience congruence when our thoughts about our real and ideal self are similar

10.3. Divided the self

10.3.1. Real: the person you actually are

10.3.2. Ideal: the person you would like to be

10.4. Masloww

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13. Historical perspective

13.1. Franz Gall

13.1.1. Proposed that: distance between bumps on the skull reveals personality traits Phrenology

13.2. Hippocrates

13.2.1. Human behaviors are based in 4 temperaments Choleric (yellow liver) Sanguine (red-heart) Melancholic( black liver) Phlegmatic(white-lung)