Cell Biology Topic 1

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Cell Biology Topic 1 by Mind Map: Cell Biology Topic 1

1. Both have cell walls( most except animal cell for eukaryotic cell)

2. Both have ribosomes

3. Both have cytoplasm

4. Both have plasma membrane

5. Prokaryotic cell (0.2-2μm) is much smaller than eukaryotic cell(10-100μm)

6. Eukaryotic cell have a nucleus while prokaryotic cell contain a nucleoid region

7. Prokaryotic cells do not have specialised organelles while eukaryotic cells have specialised organelles

8. Chloroplasts

8.1. Structure:

8.1.1. Double membrane

8.1.2. Thylakoid membrane system ( flattened compartment)

8.1.3. Stacked to form grana

8.1.4. Stroma

8.2. Function:

8.2.1. Contain chloroplasts to capture light energy

8.2.1.1. produce ATP and oxygen

8.2.2. Energy from light reaction is used to make carbohydrates from CO2

9. Mitochondria

9.1. Structure:

9.1.1. Contains both inner and outer membrane

9.1.2. Highly folded to form cristae

9.1.3. Enclose mitochondrial matrix

9.2. Function:

9.2.1. Produce ATP via cellular respiration at the cristae

10. Lysosomes

10.1. Structure:

10.1.1. Membrane-bound vesicles

10.2. Function:

10.2.1. digestion of macromolecules by lytic enzymes

10.2.2. Digestion of substances brought in the cell via endocytosis

10.2.3. Recycling worn out organelles

11. Endoplasmic Reticulum

11.1. Structure:

11.1.1. Rough ER (with ribosomes)

11.1.2. Smooth ER (without ribosomes)

11.2. Function:

11.2.1. RER

11.2.1.1. Sort proteins using membrane vesicle

11.2.1.2. Insert newly made proteins into ER membrane

11.2.1.3. Attach carbohydrates to proteins and lipids ( glycosylation)

11.2.2. SER

11.2.2.1. Provide surface area for

11.2.2.1.1. detoxification of drugs and alcohol

11.2.2.1.2. carbohydrate metabolism

11.2.2.2. synthesis of lipid (esp phospholipids)

12. Golgi Apparatus

12.1. Structure:

12.1.1. stacks of flattened membrane, can have up to 40 to 100 stacks

12.2. Function:

12.2.1. collect and group proteins from ER, send processed groups out to other parts of the cell

12.2.2. carries out post-transitional modification of proteins

12.2.2.1. Adding sugar residues to proteins

12.2.2.2. Adding phosphate groups to proteins

13. Nucleus

13.1. Structure:

13.1.1. Contains chromatin, chromosome, nuclear membrane, nuclear pore, nucleolus

13.2. Function:

13.2.1. Storage of DNA

13.2.2. Assembly of ribosomal subunits

14. eukaryotic cell & prokaryotic cell