AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

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AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY by Mind Map: AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

1. Unit 2 Population and Migration

1.1. Ravenstein's Laws of MIgration

1.1.1. Rural to urban

1.1.2. People move for money

1.1.3. Males move more than females

1.1.4. Young people move more

1.1.5. Countermigration

1.1.6. Most migrants move a short distance

1.1.7. Those moving long-distance are attracted to urban centers for econ. opportunities

1.2. Demographic Transition Model

1.2.1. Stage 1: Traditional/Preindustrial Stage

1.2.1.1. Low RNI, High CBR, High CDR

1.2.2. Stage 2: Transitional/Industrialization Stage

1.2.2.1. High RNI, High CBR, Rapidly Declining CDR

1.2.2.1.1. Mali, South Sudan

1.2.3. Stage 3: Industrialization Stage

1.2.3.1. Moderate RNI, Declining CBR, Moderately Declining CDR

1.2.3.1.1. Mexico, India, Turkey, BRICS

1.2.4. Stage 4: Highly Developed Stage

1.2.4.1. Low RNI, Low CBR, Low CBR

1.2.4.1.1. United States, Canada

1.2.5. Stage 5: Declining Population

1.2.5.1. Negative RNI, Low CBR, Low CDR

1.2.5.1.1. Japan, Germany, Italy

1.2.6. Criticisms: war and famine, migration, diseases

1.3. Population Pyramids

1.3.1. Stage 1: narrow top, wide bottom, curved

1.3.2. STage 2: slightly narrower base, narrow top, more pyramid shaped

1.3.3. Stage 3: smaller bottom, growing top

1.3.4. Stage 4: rectangular shape

1.3.5. Stage 5: base shrinking, widetop

1.3.6. Dependency Ratio: Working age people/people too young or old to work

1.4. Population Measures

1.4.1. Crude Death Rate: # of deaths/1000 people

1.4.2. Crude Birth Rate: # of live births/1000 ppl

1.4.3. Infant Mortality Rate: # infant deaths/ 1000 live births

1.4.3.1. Rate of Natural Increase-CBR-CDR/10

1.4.4. Total Fertility Rate: average number of children born to a childbearing-age woman

1.4.5. Doubling Time: amount of time it takes for pop.to double

1.5. Push+Pull Factors

1.5.1. Push: repels someone, reason to leave

1.5.1.1. war, famine, pollution, political instability, persecution, lack of opportunities, refugees/forced migration

1.5.2. Pull: attracts somone to come to a place

1.5.2.1. Economic opportunities, low pollution, less natural disasters, stable govt., cultural acceptance, political asylum

1.6. Migrations

1.6.1. can lead to formation of ethnic enclaves

1.6.2. guest workers: people migrate to a country to work there temporarily

1.6.2.1. oil workers in Middle East come from S/SE Asia

1.6.2.2. Remittances: people send money back to family or friends in their home country

1.6.3. Brain Drain: loss of educated, skilled people from a country

1.6.3.1. Person moves from El Salvador to the US for a tech job opportunity; El Salvador loses a smart tech person

1.6.4. Chain Migrations: people are more likely to move somewhere if they have relatives already living there

1.7. Malthusian Theory

1.7.1. the population will grow faster than the agricultural advancements, exceeding carrying capacity

1.8. Population Policies

1.8.1. Eugenic

1.8.1.1. Apartheid in South Africa

1.8.2. Pronatalist

1.8.2.1. Do It For Denmark

1.8.3. Antinatalist

1.8.3.1. One Child Policy-China

1.8.4. What a Government Does To Control or Increase Their Population?

2. Unit 3 Culture (Religion + Language)

2.1. Culture

2.1.1. What people have in common with others and Identify in a Group

2.1.2. Folk Culture

2.1.2.1. Small Homogeneous Groups of People: Little to no change; Rural Areas with small migration

2.1.2.1.1. is hurt by pop culture when people want to be part of group bigger than themselves

2.1.2.2. Relate to Ethnic Religions

2.1.3. Pop Culture

2.1.3.1. Large Groups of People with lots of Drastic Changes All the Time; No Restrictions: Urban Areas

2.1.3.2. Relate to Universalizing Religion

2.1.4. Hearth

2.1.4.1. Where things start

2.1.5. Diffusion

2.1.5.1. Relocation

2.1.5.1.1. People migrate and take their ideas with them

2.1.5.1.2. Religions spread this way

2.1.5.2. Expansion

2.1.5.2.1. Contagious

2.1.5.2.2. Hierarchical

2.1.5.2.3. Stimulus

2.1.6. Regions

2.1.6.1. Formal

2.1.6.1.1. Exact Boundaries and Regions that are Politically Defined

2.1.6.2. Functional (Nodal)

2.1.6.2.1. Based on actions taken in a place

2.1.6.3. Vernacular (Perceptual)-Mind (Mental) Maps

2.1.6.3.1. How People Define Different Regions in their own way; Not politically defined

2.1.7. Globalization

2.1.7.1. Global interaction of people

2.1.7.2. Time Space Compression

2.1.7.2.1. People are connected through Time and Space because of technology

2.1.7.3. Leads to stimulation of the global economy

2.1.7.4. Criticized for destroying Folk Cultures

2.1.7.4.1. Promotes Homogeneity

2.1.8. Spread & Decline of Culture

2.1.8.1. Acculturation

2.1.8.1.1. People adopt some values of the culture they are moving into but keep some of their original culture

2.1.8.2. Syncretism

2.1.8.2.1. Blending of. Cultures and Creation of New Ideas

2.1.8.3. Assimilation

2.1.8.3.1. People leave behind their previous culture and adopt the dominant culture to "fit in"

2.1.8.4. Multiculturalism

2.1.8.4.1. Many cultures exist in the same place

2.1.8.5. Ethnocentrism (Natavism)

2.1.8.5.1. People think that the native culture is better than the culture of immigrants to their state

2.1.9. Language

2.1.9.1. Language Families

2.1.9.1.1. Indo-European: Spanish, French, Italian (Romance Languages) English (Germanic Languages)

2.1.9.2. Mandarin is the largest native speakers

2.1.9.3. Language is a PIECE OF YOUR CULTURE!!

2.1.9.3.1. ACCENT

2.1.9.3.2. Dialects

2.1.9.3.3. Lingua Franca

2.1.9.3.4. Toponym

3. Unit 4 Political Geography

3.1. Countries

3.1.1. States are sovereign political territories; China, Great Britain

3.1.2. Nations: A group of people in a culture in one place: Amazonian People, Kurds, Palestinians

3.1.2.1. Nation States are when 1 nation is in 1 state; Japan & Iceland

3.1.3. Multinational States: states that consist of multiple nations; USA, Canada

3.1.4. Stateless Nation: Nations that want to find an independent state, but are not in a state; Kurdish People, Palestine, Basques, Catalonians in Spain

3.1.4.1. Devolution: Transfer of Powers from Central Govt to Local Governments

3.1.4.1.1. Catalonia in Spain can ask for more local power since they are a nation themselves

3.1.4.1.2. Devolutionary forces lead to Balkanization which is the separation of a large state into many smaller states

3.2. Nationalism

3.2.1. Nationalism: A nation's desire to maintain or gain a state of their own

3.2.2. Territoriality: a group of people are willing to defend and claim their land for themselves

3.2.2.1. This land is my land and only my land

3.3. Political Forces

3.3.1. Centripetal

3.3.1.1. things that bind us together

3.3.1.1.1. shared religion, shared language, patriotism

3.3.2. Centrifugal

3.3.2.1. forces that separate

3.3.2.1.1. Physical Barrier: Mts, Rivers, Economic-Industrialized North vs. Agricultarlly based South, Different Religions or Languages: Different Political Parties

3.4. Theories

3.4.1. Organic Theory (Ratzel)

3.4.1.1. If you don't grow your state, it will not survive, you must act live a like organism and grow or you will die.

3.4.2. Heartland Theory (Mackinder)

3.4.2.1. Land Based Power is more important because you have access to the Hearth of everything in the center of Eurasia

3.4.3. Rimland Theory (Spykman)

3.4.3.1. You most control the Rim of Eurasia because you have access to the water resources and can go on boats, etc.

3.5. Supranationalism

3.5.1. Definition: Organization and Cooperation of Nations to Accomplish a Common Goal

3.5.1.1. EU: European Union: Made for trade with the Euro and Open Borders (Poltical)

3.5.1.2. NAFTA: North American Free Trade Agreement; Made for Economic Reason

3.5.1.3. NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Military and Defense)

3.6. Boundaries

3.6.1. Relic

3.6.1.1. Boundary that does not divide anymore, but did historically

3.6.1.1.1. Berlin Wall

3.6.2. Antecedent

3.6.2.1. Boundaries drawn before a large population is present

3.6.2.1.1. Between the USA and Canada during the colonial period

3.6.3. Subsequent

3.6.3.1. opposite of antecedent; drawn after cultural landscape is present

3.6.3.1.1. Northern Ireland & Ireland

3.6.4. Superimposed

3.6.4.1. Boundaries drawn by a group of people not living in that area

3.6.4.1.1. Berlin Conference on Dividing up Africa

3.6.5. Geometric

3.6.5.1. Straight Line Boundary or Based on the Separation of Earth in Parallels

3.6.5.1.1. USA and Canada Boundary-49th parallel

3.7. Territorial Morphology

3.7.1. Compact

3.7.1.1. Capital is in center and the circular state makes travel easier with trade in smaller state

3.7.1.1.1. Poland, France

3.7.2. Elongated

3.7.2.1. A state that is long and skinny that is hard to travel within because it is just a strip of land; harder to govern and defend

3.7.2.1.1. Chile

3.7.3. Fragmented

3.7.3.1. States are separated into many different pieces of land and islands

3.7.3.1.1. Indonesia

3.7.4. Perforated

3.7.4.1. One state has another state inside of it: Makes the enclave feel like it is dominated by the major country

3.7.4.1.1. South Africa, Italy

3.7.5. Prorupted or Protruded

3.7.5.1. compact state with an elongated extension; make it hard to connect the elongated part with the mainland

3.7.5.1.1. Thailand

3.7.6. Exclaves

3.7.6.1. piece of a state separated from the rest of the state

3.7.6.1.1. United States & Alaska

3.7.7. Enclaves

3.7.7.1. A country or state that is surrounded by another country

3.7.7.1.1. Lesotho (enclaved by South Africa)

3.7.7.2. Cultural Enclaves-a group of people that are culturally connected and live in one certain area

3.7.7.2.1. Chinatown

3.8. Administration of Power

3.8.1. Federal

3.8.1.1. Multiple levels of Federal, then State, then local govt: equally diffused power; helps to accommodate the cultural needs of certain pieces of a state

3.8.1.1.1. USA and Germany

3.8.2. Unitary

3.8.2.1. Only one level of government at the national level; Cultural homogeneity in the population

3.8.2.1.1. France and China and Japan

3.9. Gerrymandering

3.9.1. voting districts are redrawn to give advantage to one political party in an election

3.9.1.1. Happens every 10 years after population redistricting after the census

3.10. Redistricting

3.10.1. the changing of sizes of political district based on population size

3.11. UN Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)

3.11.1. First Zone: Territorial Sea (12 miles from coast); full control (sovereignty)

3.11.2. Second Zone: Contiguous Zone-limited sovereignty but control of immigration and customs

3.11.3. Third Zone: Trade is controlled for 200 miles (Economic Exclusive Zone)

3.11.3.1. mining, oil, natural gas-managing the living/non-living natural resources

3.11.4. High Seas anything past the UNCLOS boundaries

3.12. Irrendentism

3.12.1. A country takes back what it believes is its sovereign territory

3.12.1.1. Hitler took back Austria in his conquest of Europe because he thought that the Austrian people were actually German

3.13. Sovereignty

3.13.1. A country has control over the actions in it borders and is in control over all of the laws

3.13.1.1. Disputes and conflicts

3.13.1.1.1. Boundary Disputes

3.13.1.1.2. Ethnic Cleansing

3.13.1.1.3. Genocide

4. Unit 5 Agriculture

4.1. Origins of Agriculture

4.1.1. Everything started in Mesopotamia, the Middle East, and the Fertile Crescent

4.1.1.1. the land was overfarmed and desertified, so it is a desert now

4.2. First Agricultural Revolution

4.2.1. We learned to plant and animal domestication, cultivation

4.3. Second Agricultural Revolution

4.3.1. occurred around Industrial Revolution; application of tech to agriculture (plow, etc.), crop rotation (using different crops to return nutrients to soil), intercropping (planting different crops in the same field)

4.4. Third Agricultural Revolution

4.4.1. AKA Green Revolution: biotechnology, GMOs, and pesticides

4.4.1.1. HIgher yields result in higher carrying capacities-opposed Thomas Malthus' theory, population began to spike drastically

4.5. Types of Agriculture

4.5.1. Commercial Agriculture

4.5.1.1. people growing crops for money (later in DTM, stages 3 onward)

4.5.1.2. Extensive Agriculture: uses technology, so low labor input on a large amount of land

4.5.1.3. Dairy Farming

4.5.1.4. Grain Farming

4.5.1.5. MIxed Crop and Livestock

4.5.1.6. Mediterranean Farming

4.5.1.7. Plantation

4.5.1.7.1. associated with LDCS & Monocultures: a field that is growing 1 crop

4.5.1.7.2. Polyculture: a field that is growing multiple crops, more sustainable because they return nutrients to the soil, makes land more fertile for future use

4.5.1.8. Food Deserts: an area without access to healthy, fresh food; abundance of unhealthy, cheap, junk/fast food; usually in urban areas; harmful to health and obesity

4.5.2. Subsistence Agriculture: people growing crops to feed their family (early in DTM, stages 1 & 2)

4.5.2.1. Labor/Land Intensive Agriculture: large labor input, small amount of land

4.5.2.2. Shifting Cultivation: move around to different field to maintain soil fertility

4.5.2.2.1. Slash-an Burn Agriculture: slashing all the trees and vines to clear the land and then burn it to return nutrients to the soil via ash (Amazonian rainforest) but it can be bad for the atmosphere because of air pollution

4.6. Settlement Patterns

4.6.1. Clustered

4.6.1.1. many farmhouses and farms are located near each other; frequent in hamlets and towns

4.6.2. Dispersed

4.6.2.1. Township & Range Land Survey

4.6.2.1.1. random farms scattered around the landscape

4.6.3. Linear

4.6.3.1. Longlots survey

4.6.3.1.1. people settle along a road or a river for easier transportation; farm-to-market roads

4.6.4. Von Thunen's Model

4.6.4.1. Truck Farming and Horticulture in the center near market and CBD (Central Business District)

4.6.4.2. Bid-rent theory

4.6.4.3. Land costs and transportation costs