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Leader(ship) by Mind Map: Leader(ship)

1. Type

1.1. See details in leadership theories above

1.2. Good=Resonant=Effective/Average/Bad=Poor

1.2.1. Good=to create hope, (sustainable) change which link to PEA - positive Emotional Attractor

1.2.2. Poor=to create stress, defense which link to NEA-Negative Emotional Attractor

2. Main tasks

2.1. 1.Managing – Providing clear, concise focus on outcomes, deliverables and due dates to the team

2.2. 2.Leading – Providing inspiration and encouraging the team to wards a vision which embodies new possibilities. The leading function is important in identifying and creating a new vision

2.2.1. Task Allocation=BALM method (Breakdown-Analyze-List of team member competencies - Match individual to task competencies

2.3. 3.Mentoring – Providing expert advice and guidance, taking members of the team under ones wing and providing a role model which the team can aspire to being

2.4. 4.Coaching – Providing a development focus for new competencies, qualities and ways of being as team members

2.4.1. GROW model (Goal-current Reality-Options-Will)

2.4.2. Thought Model: Circumstances -Thoughts - Feelings - Actions - Results

2.5. 5.Training-providing new technical skill

2.6. 6. Decision making/Implement decision

2.6.1. to include INCLUSIVENESS (=get people involved in team works-decision making and implementing decision) (Diversity and Inclusion) 1- to avoid pitfall of individual decision making problem=to get unbiased and objective decision = to avoid subjectivity/heuristic method = to avoid anchoring or framing problems Anchoring is a biasing heuristic, and anchoring means being influenced by a reference number when estimating Framing means being influenced by whether the choice presented to you heuristic là các kỹ thuật dựa trên kinh nghiệm để giải quyết vấn đề, học hỏi hay khám phá nhằm đưa ra một giải pháp mà không được đảm bảo là tối ưu 2- to avoid pitfall of group decision making problem=to avoid process loss = composition + participation + influence problem composition=similarity-atttraction theory that says we spend our time with people who are most like us. OVERCOME SOLUTION=try to avoid the usual suspects, go outside of your comfort zone a little bit, and think about who else you might get involved, even people that disagree with you participation=spectator who just watch and do not give any contribution. OVERCOME SOLUTION=breaking into smaller groups, people starts talking will keep talking influence=when we are uncertain (OR less info OR too many info), we will influence other or be influenced by other. OVERCOME SOLUTION=encourage the most susceptible to talk OR try writing before discussing

2.7. 7. Problem solving

2.7.1. Appreciation method=asking "So what?" for extracting the maximum amount of information from a simple fact. 5 times consecutive or till getting conclusion

2.7.2. 5 WHYs=to quickly determine the root cause

2.7.3. Cause and Effect diagrams=to identify the likely cause of problem, rather than just the one that are most obvious (WHAT, WHO, WHERE, WHEN, WHY, HOW)

2.7.4. Affinity diagram: to assimilate and understand large amounts of information/ideas

2.7.5. Appreciate Inquiry=4D approach (Discovery, Dream, Design, Deliver)

2.7.6. Flow chart=to show how steps in a process fit together

2.7.7. Risk analysis and Risk management

2.7.8. SWOT analysis

2.8. 8.Managing CONFLICT

2.8.1. 5 styles (Thomas-Kilmann): (1) competitive (2) collaborative (3) compromising (4) accommodating (5) avoiding

2.8.2. 6 tactics for group conflict management (1) work with fact (accurate info) (2) multiple alternative to enrich debate (3) have commonly agreed upon goal (4) maintain balanced power structure (5) resolve issue without forcing consensus (6) inject humor into the deliberation

2.8.3. "Interest-based relational approach" IBR rule = (1) first priority=good relationship (2) separate people/problem (3) pay attention to interest presented (4) listen first, talk later (5) set out the "facts" (6) explore options together


2.9. 9.Managing MOTIVATION

2.9.1. Law of effect="responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation."

2.9.2. Thuyết kỳ vọng (Expectancy theory) proposes that an individual will behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over others due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be

2.9.3. 5 levels Maslow's hierarchy of needs (1) physiological (2) safety (3 )love/belonging (4) esteem (5) self - actualization

2.9.4. Herzberg Hygien Theory=02 factors theory = factor for satisfaction (achievement+recognition+work itself+responsibility+advancement+growth) + for dissatisfaction (company policy+supervision+relationship with supervisor+work condition+salary+status+security)

2.9.5. Thuyết Công bằng (Adam Equity Theory): to ensure job satisfaction and individual motivation, must consider the balance b/w input/output that employees given/received

2.10. Team Leadership=who stress production and people needs equally and highly. they create a team environment based on trust and respect which leads to high satisfaction and motivation and as a result, high production

3. Characteristic

3.1. =situational=no best leadership for all circumstance=using the right one for the right situation

3.2. working in group = team work

3.2.1. decision making/implementing

3.2.2. conflict, diversity and difference manangement

3.2.3. creativity and innovation

3.2.4. Belbin's team roles model = 03 groups Action oriented (Shaper + Implementer + Completer/Finisher), People oriented (Coordinator + Team worker + Resoursce investigator) and Thought oriented (Plant +Monitor/Evaluator+Specialist)

3.3. Balancing concern for task/production and concern for people/team member (managerial grid)

4. How

4.1. to increase EI (Emotional Intelligence) SI (Social) CI (Cognitive) competencies

4.1.1. 1-Emotional Self-Awareness (ESA): Recognizing one's emotions and their effects 2- Emotional Self-Control (ESC): ability to control emotions and impulses. The intent is to inhibit personal needs, or desires for the benefit of organizational, family, or group needs. think before act. no angry or jealous 3-Adaptability (A): Flexibility in handling change. 4-Achievement Orientation (AO): Striving to improve or meeting a standard of excellence. The intent is to perceive input/output relationships and includes the concern for increasing the efficiency of action (i.e., maximizing output per unit of input). 5-Positive Outlook (PO): Seeing the positive aspects of things and the future

4.1.2. 1-Empathy (E): Sensing others' feelings and perspectives, and taking an active interest in their concerns 2-Organizational Awareness (OA): Reading a group's emotional currents and power relationships 3-Coach and Mentor (CM): Sensing others' development needs and bolstering their abilities. 4-Inspirational Leadership (IL): Inspiring and guiding individuals and groups 5-Influence (INF): Having a positive impact on others; persuading or convincing others 6-Conflict Management (CFM): Negotiating and resolving disagreements/conflict 7-Teamwork (TW): Working with others toward shared goals. Especially, remote team.

4.1.3. 1-Systems Thinking (ST): perceiving multiple causal relationships in understanding phenomena or events. The intent is to order multiple causal events. 2-Pattern Recognition (PR): perceiving themes or patterns in seemingly random items, events, or phenomena. The intent is to identify a pattern in an assortment of information, unorganized, or seemingly random data

4.2. to improve communication method

4.2.1. 5 best practices for group decision making (1) multiple alternatives=BATNA (2) assumption testing=always ask why (3) well defined criteria for output... (4) dissent and debate (5) perception and fairness

4.2.2. 6 common susceptible traps of group decision making (1) anchoring = stick on 1st alternative (2) status quo trap =focusing on only current context=no realize that new context requires new solution (3) sunk cost = no forget the already price (4) confirm evidence trap = stick on alternative already in mind (5) framing trap = using personal words to confirm the alternative already in mind (6) estimating/forecasting trap=wrong estimation on future

4.2.3. 3 hidden forces (1) context or perspective (2) interaction design = norm, habit, culture or extended context (3) power of system and institution or broader context

4.2.4. 4 basic components of effective communication (1) focus on problem, not people (2) focus on interest, not position (3) as much options as possible (4) well defined criteria for output/outcome

4.2.5. 2 communication energy=PULL and PUSH

4.3. to increase power =positional power (legitimate, reward, coercive) + personal power (expert and referent)

4.4. to refer to dimensions/qualities of transformational leadership style with the notice of existence of (transactional leadership =type of manager="detail people") which are both needed for many organization

4.5. to avoid micro management

4.5.1. MANAGER: (1) successful delegation (2) looking at big picture instead of tiny detail (3) encourage other to decide and admit their success (4) listen/trust

4.5.2. to consider the context=(1) skill level and experience of your team (2) work involved (routine or new or creative) (3) organizational environment (4) your own preferred or natural style + establish trust + balance needs of organization/team/your self

4.5.3. STAFF: (1) as all info you need (2) volunteer to take on work to increase manager's confidence which lead to his delegation (3) communicate progress regularly (4) talk to him/listen

5. Leadership Theories

5.1. 04 main theories (1) Trait theory (2) Behavioral Theory (3) Contingency Theory (4) Power and Influence Theory

5.1.1. TRAIT

5.1.2. BEHAVIORAL: Kurt Lewin=3 types (1) autocratic leader =no need team agreement, but quick decision (2) democratic leader=need team agreement (3) laissez-faire leader= when team is highly capable and motivated Blacke Mouton Managerial grid (below) John Adai=action centered leadership=balancing team, task and individual responsibilities

5.1.3. CONTINGENCY: Hersey-Blanchard=link with maturity of individual member

5.1.4. POWER AND INFLUENCE: 05 forms of power=positional power (legitimate, reward, coercive) + personal power (expert and referent) Transactional leadership=work is done only because it is rewarded, and for no other reason=a type of management, not leader

5.2. up to date understanding of leadership=transformational leadership who suits very many circumstances in business

5.2.1. who (1) has integrity (2) set clear goals (3) clearly communicate a vision (4) set a good example (5) expect the best from team (6) encourages (7) supports (8) recognize good work and people (9) provides stimulating works (1) helps other see beyond their self interest

5.2.2. who, in short, are exceptionally motivating and they are trusted

5.2.3. 4 dimensions of Transformational Leadership (1) idealized influence (2) inspirational motivation (3) individual consideration of needs of leader-follower (4) intellectual stipulation=get people think outside of the box