Changes in Childhood over Time

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Changes in Childhood over Time by Mind Map: Changes in Childhood over Time

1. Work Laws

1.1. Children were seen as adults as soon as they were weaned

1.2. Children worked alongside adults

1.3. At the start, child labour was still widespread

1.4. 1802: Health and Morals of Apprentices Act

1.4.1. Humane standards of treatment in the workplace

1.5. 1833: New Factory Act

1.5.1. No children under 9 in factories

1.5.2. Maximum 48 hour work week (8 hours daily) for 9-13 years

1.5.3. Maximum 12 hour days for 13-18 years

2. Family Relationships

2.1. High infant mortality rates

2.2. Parents often neglected young children

2.3. Young children may not be named until they have passed infancy

2.4. 1961: Contraceptive pill

2.4.1. Children become a choice

2.5. 1945: Welfare State

2.5.1. Parents could invest in their children, knowing they would survive

2.6. 1989: Children’s Act

2.6.1. Parental responsibility for the welfare of their children

3. Crime and Law

3.1. Children were treated as adults in law

3.2. 1989: Convention of Rights for the Child

3.2.1. Monitoring and enforcing of social, legal and moral rights of children

4. Schools

4.1. Towards the end, the wealthy began sending their children to school

4.2. 1802: Health and Morals of Apprentices Act

4.2.1. Mandatory 2 hours of school daily for under 13s

4.3. 1880: Elementary Schooling Act

4.3.1. State education compulsory for 5-10 years

5. General Lifestyle

5.1. Children dressed and played alongside adults

5.2. Childhood wasn’t seen as a separate life stage

5.3. Childhood begins to be separated from adulthood both physically and in law

5.4. Industrial technology advanced and labour requirements went down so activities like Sunday school were created to keep children occupied

5.5. Experts in children’s development become more common

5.5.1. Child psychologists

5.5.2. Paediatricians

5.5.3. Educationalists

5.5.4. Parenting experts

5.6. Childhood becomes something to be treasured and protected