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HCINNOV 7440 by Mind Map: HCINNOV 7440

1. Assignment 1: The Abernathy - Utterback Model

1.1. The Abernathy- Utterback Model is an innovation theory that evaluates an organizations readiness to develop innovation by assessing the approach of how product innovation, process innovation, competitive environment and organization structure interact and the three stages of innovation a particular organization will go through.

1.1.1. Fluid Phase: The first phase of the A-U Model is the fluid phase where technology and the market are uncertain. During this phase, product innovation is high and process innovation and competition are low. A company can choose to put their resources in being the dominant product and be the first to come out with a new product or they can wait for a dominant product and work towards improving on the dominant product. A barrier that can exist and hinder an organization during this phase is relying on existing products and technology or not putting the resources into a manufacturer who will make something new. When COVID-19 started to affect central Ohio, Ohio State Wexner Medical Center became a dominant organization in mask sterilization and reliable and rapid COVID-19 testing by partnering with Batelle Memorial Institute. During this uncertain time in the world, OSUWMC was being a leader in innovation by being one of the first organizations to come out with a product that allowed healthcare workers to reuse their PPE in a time when there was a shortage of PPE and demand could not keep up with supply for healthcare workers.

1.1.2. Transitional Phase: The second phase of the A-U model is the transitional phase and during this time, standardization will begin to develop in organizations. During this period, product innovation becomes less of the focus and process innovation, competitive environment and organization structure become more important. A dominant product will usually come to light during this phase that competitors will seek out from the innovative organizations that produced the dominant product. It is pertinent during this phase to focus on the process innovation and having successful product breakthroughs of the new product as threats to this phase are imitation products. OSUWMC and Batelle were able to create and finalize a product that allowed COVID testing to go from having 200 tests and day to over 1,000 tests per day once additional infrastructure was added.

1.1.3. Specific Phase: The third and final phase of the A-U model is the specific phase. At this point, process innovation has changed its focus from a new product to producing the dominant product. The competitive environment and organization structure are high as the dominant product moves towards being a supplier or leader in their industry. The specific phase focuses on smaller amounts of innovation as organizations look to make improvements in quality to the new products and innovation. The threat during this phase is no longer imitators but new technology and disruptive innovation which can restart the process back to the fluid phase. OSUWMC is now processing one in every nine COVID tests in the state of Ohio and is now processing over 4,000 tests daily. They continue to provide education to the community, make tests more accessible, and were prepared for students to return to campus.

1.1.4. Table

2. Assignment 2: Organizational Innovation Framework

2.1. How to Build a Template of Innovation

2.1.1. Step One: Identify and have an understanding of where your innovation is coming from and what you are trying to accomplish. Once you identify the why of your innovation, you begin to implement the innovation. Is your innovation coming from an accident or crisis? A lot of innovation comes from crisis. There have been many innovative changes with COVID-19 and the need to make changes rapidly. Are you trying to make the process better? Are you trying to fix the "squeaky wheel" through innovation? Are you watching others and trying to be an imitator or perfect the product? "Imitation is not only the most sincere form of flattery but also a viable and successful strategy for sourcing innovation" Are you trying to inspire others and be a pioneer of innovation? An organization that is leading the way in inspiring others in the Mayo Clinic and their Center of Innovation Are you trying for a knowledge push? "It's a story of occasional breakthrough punctuated by long periods of incremental innovation, consolidating around that idea." Is there a need that is pulling this innovation? "Necessity is the Mother of invention." There is an external driving force that causes the need to change an innovate.

2.1.2. Step Two: Once you have identified the why or what behind your innovation, begin to apply the the Abernathy-Utterback Model and outlining your phases of innovation. Once the phases have been identified, you can dedicate the resources that will be needed during each phase. During this time, be sure to consider not only process and product innovation but the culture of your organization and external environment. Fluid Phase During the fluid phase, the resources you will focus on will be product development. You will want to consider dedicated more resources to engineers, researchers, etc. while spending less resources on marketing and process improvement. Transitional Phase During the transitional phase, you are focusing of the standardization of your product or process. You will want to dedicate resources to perfecting your product and begin to consider the culture of your organization and the external environments. Specific Phase During the specific phase, dedicate resources to marketing your product and expanding to the external environments outside of your organization. There is less innovation during this period but instead, focus on making incremental changes and making your product the best it can be.

2.1.3. Step Three: Once you have outlined your phases of innovation, consider some strategies that can push your innovation forward. Many times the strategies are working in conjunction with step two and the Abernathy-Utterback model. There are many different strategies but focus on one to two and how it can directly affect your specific innovation. Understanding strategies and being intentional with their use will allow you to have more specific plans when considering implementation. Identify yourself as Leadership vs. Followership: In your innovation, are you aiming to be the first to the market or are you aiming to be late to the market in hopes that you can perfect the product. Be sure to have an understanding of which role you would like to take before outlining your phases or innovation. Leadership Followership Be both rationalist and an incrementalist organization. Although these contradict each other, you must be able to adopt both to be successful. When considering being a rationalist innovator, it is important to examine your external environments, be willing to prepare for change, and always be considering long term affect on innovation and change. When considering being an incrementalist innovator, it is important to consider that small steps and changes lead to results. It is also important to consider that using this method and evaluating the steps as you go, you can be more fluid and willing to change halfway through when something is not working. Allow the experience of the users to be the driving force of not only innovation but change during the innovative process as well. Many times we will implement new innovative technologies assuming we have met the users needs but a lot of times, innovative opportunities can be found with users frustrations with existing products. If you listen and take feedback from users, you will find endless opportunities for innovation.

2.1.4. Step Four: Start the process over again! Truly innovative organizations will not stop with one successful innovative idea. They will continue to seek innovation and follow this framework not only repeatedly but in often times will have multiple innovative projects and processes happening at the same time.

2.2. Innovation Template at OSUWMC

2.2.1. Step One OSUWMC is a large organization that values research, especially when considering cancer research. They should be focusing their innovation strategies on leading the way and being a pioneer for change. I do believe we are a leader in the industry but also feel like we can continue to push the way forward for improvement.

2.2.2. Step Two: Flash Proton Therapy Fluid Phase: There were no proton therapy centers in Ohio and the James Cancer Hospital will be investigating clinical trial participants in this advanced form of therapy. Transitional Phase: The James Cancer Hospital understood the need to perfect this form of therapy and begin outreach in the community and within the organization to implement bringing a center to central Ohio. Specific Phase: The new proton therapy center is scheduled to open in 2022 at a new outpatient cancer center.

2.2.3. Step Three OSUWMC has been identified as a leadership in innovation. They used a combined method of rationalist strategy by understanding the need for this new form of therapy and the lack of access in the community but also used incrementalist strategy by working with clinical trial patients, utilizing research and being willing to think outside of the box for a new form of therapy.

2.2.4. Step Four: Keep going! Not only is OSUWMC using innovation through Flash Proton Therapy but are also leading the way in innovation through genertic counseling, clinical trial, immunotherapy and much more. The continuation of innovation and using external factors will keep OSUWMC as a leader in innovation.

3. Assignment 3: Innovation Leadership

3.1. Characteristics

3.1.1. Risk Taking: Using calculated measures to create change and build innovation in your organization.

3.1.2. Visioning: Creating a clear and shared vision of what you expect of your organization and making plans to achieve this vision.

3.1.3. Leveraging Opportunity: Using your network and influence to accomplish what you are trying to change.

3.1.4. Facilitation: Bringing diverse groups together and leveraging their talents rather than directing their behaviors.

3.1.5. Embrace Unpredictability: Be okay with and learn how to manage the ever changing world of healthcare. Lean into the unknown.

3.2. Organization Roles and the Impact in Information Technology

3.2.1. CEO Visioning: The CEO sets the vision for the entire organization. Whether that is building a mission and value statement and creating a framework around that or setting specific goals to work towards, the CEO has a good understanding of where he wants OSUWMC to go towards. When creating this vision, the CEO must have clear item in mind. An example that comes to mind when I think of the OSUWMC CEO is that there is a clear goal of being a leader in research. With this goal, OSUWMC invests many resources towards research to ensure we remain a top tier organization research and education.

3.2.2. IT Director Facilitation: When thinking of facilitation in terms of the IT Director, she does a wonderful job of making sure all IT departments are balancing working independently while at the same time, cohesively. There are a lot of different IT departments and many projects that overlap. She ensures that she has chosen top tier leaders that will work together to ensure the goals of the IT department are met. An example of this is setting up swab stations. There is a need to bring together the group that oversees scheduling, MyChart, lab testing, and clinical workflows in the EMR. There was no need to micromanage the project but she was able trust in the leaders she had chosen to oversee the project and know that swab stations would be set up quickly. Risk Taking: There is a lot of risk taking involved when being the director of IT. There are risks of wanting to be the first organization to implement a new innovation within the EMR and be successful at it. OSUWMC is a leading organization for our EMR system, Epic. We constantly hit metrics that make us a "Gold Star" organization. Epic looks to OSUWMC to roll our new modules within their system and find the flaws. By doing this, Epic has a better understanding of real life scenarios that could come up before rolling out changes to all healthcare organizations. By taking this risk and being a "Gold Star" organization, this saves OSUWMC money and pushes us out of our comfort zones to embrace change. The IT director always ensures we are doing what we need to hit our gold star metrics.

3.2.3. Department Director Facilitation: Similar to the IT Director, the department director for my department within IT does a great job of facilitating the departments that report to her and access their strengths. Within my department, there are many areas of focus. Instead of overseeing and micromanaging each of those areas, she looked at staff's past work experience and areas of interest to assign everyone to an area of focus. This allows her to put her energy on higher level issues and projects while staff can work on perfecting their individual areas and build innovation while not being spread too thin. Embrace Unpredictability: In the last few months, I have witnessed first hand how having the skill to embrace unpredictability shows truly bring out enhanced leadership skills. The department director has done a great job of adapting to the ever changing world of COVID-19 and has been an example for all IT directors. She has been the lead director for setting up drive through swab stations, student testing and MyChart accounts for all 60,000+ students and was part of the team that turned the convention center into a pop up hospital if Columbus was hit with a shortage of beds. She has remained calm during these times of change and has proven what leadership skills should look like in an unpredictable environment. Leveraging Opportunity: The department director does a great job of leveraging opportunity within her department to ensure her department is always performing at its peak. Because of her title and experience, she has been able to take add additional staff to her team as she expanded the amounts of projects she was involved in. She also has been able to get buy in from clinical directors for projects that would support their specialty but need implementation of new technology from IT. With gaining this buy in, upper leadership is able to back her more often.

3.2.4. Department Manager Leveraging Opportunity: The department manager is able to leverage opportunity by showing her staff are "team players" which assists when needing help and resources later down the road. An example that I have been our manager do is when we partnered with Memorial Hospitals, she volunteered her staff to provide on site support at each location. By doing this, directors of other departments are able to see the hard work her team does and are willing to give additional resources on projects that she is leading. Visioning: The department manager has a more refined understanding of the specific vision and goals within the department. She is able to know what she wants her specific department to accomplish because of the more granular view than the view of a director or CEO that is overseeing multiple areas. An example of this is the implementation of scheduling within MyChart. While the CEO or OSUWMC would like patients to have better access to their providers, our department manager has been able to see specifically what needs put in place for each area of the hospital to allow patients to have access to schedule from MyChart.

3.2.5. Clinical Application Analysts- Me! Embrace Unpredictability: Many times in the role of an analyst, you are juggling multiple projects at once while also keeping up with every day work. You must be willing to embrace the unpredictability in not only your day but your projects as new projects come up, testing doesn't go as planned, or end users need immediate assistance if something in the EMR breaks. Being able to lean into the unknown and stay on track with everything that changes in healthcare and projects you are managing is part of the job. Being able to be successful in this role is being able to "go with the flow" of all of the changes that are constantly occurring. Risk Taking: There are many projects that are led by analysts that are experts in their area and want to take risks to lead innovation. An example I currently am working on is that I oversee all new patient letters that are sent to OSUWMC patients. I am working with clinical leadership to determine what information is or is not necessary to send to patients before an appointment. I let clinic managers know that I feel much of the new patient packet information has all of the same information that appears in MyChart. I proposed that they allow me to create a rule in the system that if a patient has an active MyChart account, we do not mail them information anymore, thus saving thousands of dollars for their departments. While there is a population of patients who would like to see a mailed reminder, we have been able to put rules into the system to allow text, email and MyChart reminders which is moving OSUWMC into a more advanced and financially savvy platform. Leveraging Opportunity- I try to use this skill in my current role regularly. When I started at OSUWMC I was a scheduler and then became a supervisor in Registration and Admitting. I always try to reach out to old contacts to gather information to support innovation. I also let end users know my background as I feel it helps them know that I have been in their shoes and can understand how the EMR can be frustrating as a scheduler or registrar and that by asking these questions, I am trying to help correct these issues. An example of this is when a specialty clinic want to see specific diagnosis on certain dates or times. I can understand the frustration from schedulers that it can be a lot to remember so I attempt to help them by listening to their issues and implementing decision trees and updating providers templates to be cohesive and allow the system to guide them to schedule correctly.

4. Assignment 4: High Performing Healthcare Organization

4.1. Cincinnati Children's Innovation Model

4.1.1. Innovator: "Cincinnati Children’s Innovation Ventures is focused on translating your laboratory and clinical discoveries into products that provide hope and miracles for kids. Our team collaborates with all research divisions and areas of the institution to promote, support, and advance translational research. Our Portfolio Managers provide guidance to identify and develop projects that may have commercial value." Risk Taking: There is a lot of risk taking involved when creating a start up company. Cincinnati Children's provides education resources for forming a start up company such as market assesment, market size, value proposition design, and a skills development resources. They also provide funding opportunties, one of which is an innovation fund that is an internal funding resource that providers up to $100,000 in direct funding for one year to an innovator or innovation team. The goal of this fund is for the innovator to attract further, outside funding. Facilitation: Cincinnati Children's focuses on commercialization. They describe commercialization as technology transfer and the movement of knowledge and discoveries to the general public. They facilitate this commercialization by either creating a start up company or partnering with an existing company. For existing companies, they will facilitate their own resources with those of the existing companies.

4.1.2. Partner: "Cincinnati Children’s is a world-leading pediatric institution with a powerful research engine at the forefront of healthcare innovation. With almost 1,000 faculty in over 1.5 million square feet of research space, Cincinnati Children’s innovators have active research spanning nearly every area of life sciences (pediatric and adult). The output of this extensive research is a constantly evolving, robust pipeline and portfolio of novel therapeutics, diagnostics, medical devices, software/HIT and research tools. Cincinnati Children’s Innovation Ventures is actively forming partnerships with industry to bring its research discoveries to the market where they can have the greatest impact. Whether a traditional licensing deal, sponsored research agreement, or a more creatively structured collaboration, Innovation Ventures is flexible in how it partners with industry." Visioning: When partnering with Cincinnati Children's, there is a clear vision from the outside company of what they are trying to accomplish. They support licensing opportunies, sponsor research and risk-sharing models. Some companies are simply investors while other are biotech companies looking to collaborate and expand their resources with a bigger organization. When these companies partner with CC, they have a clear and focused idea in mind.

4.1.3. Investor"Cincinnati Children’s is engaged in the venture community, regionally and nationally, and we actively seek new partners. Cincinnati Children’s takes a hands-on approach to our new venture opportunities by providing critical early stage and follow-on investment. We partner and collaborate directly with venture capitalists and investment firms to advance and commercialize our assets via early stage company formation, licensing opportunities, and sponsored research. As a world-class medical center and research institution, we can also connect you with key opinion leaders as well as clinical trial capabilities to support you and your portfolio companies. Leveraging Opportunity: By being an investor in Cincinnati Children's, you are opening your network to accomplish bigger goals of research and technology. You would have access to their resources which typically expands the resources of a start up company. You also are connected to other companies that could assist in obtaining your goal. Embrace Unpredicatbility: There are a lot of unknowns when becoming an investor in innovation- will this be successful, will they accomplish what they set out to accomplish, do they have all the resources they need? To be an investor, you must be comfortable in the unknown of the success the start up company will have.

4.1.4. Indicators for success Some indicators of success are the investors and partners Cincinnati Children's forms. The more partnerships and investors means there are more resources to put towards innovation. By having these resources, innovation becomes a constantly revolved wheel- when one innovation ends, a new one begins.

4.1.5. Abernathy-Uttenback Model Fluid Phase: In the A-U Model, Cincinnati Children's would be creating a start up company with their innovators. They would be identifying what new innovation they are trying to create- research, a new company, a new product, etc. Translational Phase: During this phase, partnering and investing begins to take place. You have identified the innovation you are working towards and now it is finding a way to make this innovation possible and perfect your innovation. Identify if there are any competitors in the market- are you imitating them or is there potential to merge? Specific Phase: During this phase, Cincinnati Children's is finalizing their partnerships and investors. They are no longer creating new innovation with this specific project but trying to grow their start up company and sustain it with these investors.

4.1.6. My Template of Innovation Step One: Similar to the fluid phase where Cincinnati Children's would be identifying what type of innovation they want to work towards- research, new product, investing in a start up company, etc. There is concept generation as the innovation team looks at gap in the market where innovation can be created. During this step CC would be laying out a plan of what and why they are seeking new innovation. Step Two: Follow the Abernathy-Utterback Model (outlined above) Step Three: During this step, Cincinnati Children's should be finding their early adapters and leaders. Identify the followers but do not invest time or energy in the laggards. CC should take consideration of their external environments, particularly in the community as that is where their go to for their partners and investors and make small changes to achieve the innovation and new start up goals. Step Four: Start the process over!

4.2. Ohio State Wexner Medical Center: CREATE (Center for Research, Education, and Advancement of Transdisciplinary Exploration)

4.2.1. Innovator: I would compare the researchers and project teams to the innovator model that Cincinnati Children's follows. These are clinicians, employees, and students at the university and hospital systems. I do feel that OSUWMC exceeds Cincinnati Children's in this area as they invest in education and their resources expand past the hospital settings and go can into all of the different colleges.

4.2.2. Partner: At OSUWMC, I would consider their version of a partner would be their Outreach Initiative. They have formed a high school mentorship program as well as partnered with private companies and government entities.

4.2.3. Investor: This is the largest area that I believe OSUWMC is lacking in the Cincinnati Children's model of innovation. They form partnerships but they do not have as active of a role in finding investors. One exception to this would be Pelatonia. Their fundraising directly benefits the James Cancer Hospital.

4.2.4. Contrast: The largest element that OSUWMC is missing compared to Cincinnati Children's is the value they place in creating start up companies. Cincinnati Children's has a a clear goal of creating start up companies by partnering with other companies within the community. While OSUWMC does a tremendous job of bridging the medical center and the university for research and innovation, as well as working with other companies and government organizations, I believe they could do a better job of creating their own start up companies.

5. Module 5: Innovation Plan at OSUWMC and the need to expand our Innovation Center

5.1. Innovation Theory: UA Model

5.1.1. Phase One

5.1.2. Phase Two

5.1.3. Phase Three

5.2. Other high performing organizations

5.2.1. Innovator

5.2.2. Investor

5.2.3. Partner

5.3. Leadership activities and roles

5.3.1. Director

5.3.2. Manager

5.3.3. Service Line employee

5.3.4. CEO

5.4. Innovation template

5.4.1. Step One

5.4.2. Step Two

5.4.3. Step Three

5.4.4. Step Four