Antebellum Reform P. 2

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Antebellum Reform P. 2 by Mind Map: Antebellum Reform P. 2

1. New religious group founded in 1830

2. What were the major antebellum reform movements and their goals? Who were the leaders? Who were the supporters? (include picture if possible)

3. Religion

3.1. 2nd Great Awakening

3.1.1. Protestant/Baptist religious revival, advocated for individual responsibility and perfection, was a reaction against rationalism Unitarian church emerged against traditional Calvinists who believed in pre-destination and original sin Encouraged social reform from within, especially equality Revival attracted African-Americans, Women and Native Americans Had an effect on the prison reform and the temperance movement

3.2. Millennialism

3.2.1. Derived from the word millennial, meaning 1,000 years

3.2.2. A religious belief that says that a golden age of civilization will occur before a "final judgment" of the Earth. A 1,000 year age of peace would then be followed by a judgment of god for the living, and his reconciliation with the existence of evil on Earth.

3.2.3. These ideas often caused movements within the Christian community, which led to social unrest Christian millennialism was based off of the book of revelations.

3.3. Mormanism

3.3.1. Really controversial, they faced a lot of persecution and opposition They believed in polygamy Founder, Joseph Smith, imprisoned and murdered by a mob They moved around a lot to get away from opposition, at different times settled in New York, Ohio, Missouri and Illinios After Joseph Smith's death, they moved to present day Utah, led by Brigham Young

3.3.2. Founded by Joseph Smith

3.4. Baptists and Methodists

3.4.1. the difference between Baptists and Methodists is that methodists perform Baptism to all while Baptists only perform it for adults and restrict it from infants

3.4.2. Methodists Believed that everyone should be baptized and receive communion Believed pastors could be male or female and appointed by bishops.

3.4.3. Baptists Believed only those of sound mind can be baptized and receive communion Pastors could only be male and appointed by local church.

4. Social Reform

4.1. Asylum and Penal Reform

4.1.1. Changes in how mentally ill and imprisoned were viewed. The mentally ill were not longer seen as a result of religious sin. Dorothea Dix introduced the idea of psychiatric wards and mental institutes. The Massachusetts legislature was informed on the cruel conditions of mental wards Prison systems changed, they instead became more organized and forgiving to the prisoner. Influenced by Jeremy Bentham who wrote about the issues of imprisonment. Helped outlaw the usage of prison labor.

4.2. Abolitionism

4.2.1. American Anti-Slavery Society (established by William Lloyd Garrison and sixty others) 3 methods of demanding abolition Publications of pamphlets from abolitionist authors such as Theodore Weld and Angelina & Sarah Grimkes Helping slaves escape with the Underground Railroad. Freed over 1,000 slaves per year. Famous heroes include Harriet Tubman. Signing petition campaign to send to Congress demanding abolition. Increased antislavery support from white farmers and proprietors.

4.2.2. Rebellions such as Nat Turners rebellion took place and the south saw this as reason to strengthen slave laws Banned independant slave preaching Limited how much slaves could travel Prohibited people from teaching slaves to read

4.2.3. Communities of freed black slaves had responsibilities in their community freed slaves were tasked with creating schools and congregations to help elevate themselves and other freed slaves

4.3. Women's Suffrage

4.3.1. the ideas of the cult of domesticity are established. Women become in more control of the household and are established as the moral guidance of households. women begin to become involved in reforms such as the abolition movement. But women were marginalized in the movement and to men would not allow them to either attend or speak at conventions. there is an idea very similar to the republican motherhood where women were meant to guide sons in there learning.

4.4. Education

4.4.1. Common Education for Men and Women The poor and middle class supported education for their kids Horace Man the then leader of the board of education in Massachusetts, believed children had a god - given right to education A common education was seen by supporters as a government funded free education program for kids so they could learn basic skills and be prepared for work

4.4.2. Higher Education for Women Emma Willard was an educator that became a teacher solely to teach young girls in common education and beyond The main drivers for this were women but the women with the most influence were also big members of the church in their areas

4.4.3. Education for Free African Americans

4.5. Temperance

4.5.1. Widespread Alcoholism

4.5.2. Alcohol affects: Health Family Life Personality

4.5.3. Promoted by: Evangelical reformers Middle class Church of latter-day saints Millerites Any one who drank alcohol would be unprepared for the second coming of Jesus in 1843

4.5.4. Emphasized moral rather then legal action

5. Other Reform Movements

5.1. The American Peace Society

5.1.1. Founded in 1828 as a pacifist group

5.1.2. It influenced some New England reformers to oppose the later Mexican War.

5.2. Phrenology

5.2.1. The idea of observing ones skull to determine intelligence Developed by Franz Joseph Gall

5.3. Dietary reforms

5.3.1. One prominent leader was Sylvester Graham

5.3.2. Emphasized vegetarianism, improved diets

5.4. Dress reforms

5.4.1. Amelia Jenks Bloomer was prominent leader for American women's rights. She did not create the women's clothing reform style known as bloomers, however her name became associated with it because of her early and strong advocacy.

5.5. Laws to protect seamen

5.5.1. The Jones Act offers relief to injured seamen in the maritime industry and ensures they receive the compensation they deserve for their injuries in a maritime lawsuit

6. Cultural Reforms

6.1. Communal experiments

6.1.1. Ann Lee Stanley - led disciples to America and established a church near Albany, New York Shakerism Her followers created religious communities embraced common ownership of property accepted church leaders overseeing communities abstained from alcohol, tobacco, politics, and war Mother Ann: "lustful gratifications of the flesh [were] the foundation of human corruption"

6.1.2. Conrad Beissel - formed the Ephrata Cloister in Pennsylvania.

6.2. Transcendentalists

6.2.1. Transcendentalists were people who believed that the need for a person to connect them to God was not needed. Ralph Waldo Emerson - Unitarian minister who advocated for individualism, using word of mouth and writing to communicate his philosophies. Margaret Fuller was another supporter of transcendentalists who was an American writer and advocated for women righths.

6.3. Arts and literature

6.3.1. Romanticist literature Washington Irving James Fenimore Cooper Nathaniel Hawthorne Herman Melville

6.3.2. Architecture Classical Athens

6.3.3. Painting Hudson River School founded 1825, it was the first artistic fraternity. Thomas Cole is regarded as the founder but didn't actually found the school, he just taught Frederic Edwin Church.