The History of Visual Communications

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The History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: The History of Visual Communications

1. Cave Paintings: The Beginning

1.1. Beautiful, Detailed Representation on Cave Walls

1.1.1. Often themes were: Large Animals, Human hands, and abstract patterns.

1.2. The most famous cave painting site is in Lascaux, France and was discovered in 1940.

1.2.1. Was forced to close in 1963 due to the Carbon Dioxide being emitted by the tourists.

1.3. The oldest known cave painting site is Chauvet PONT d'ARC

1.4. Archaeologists believe prehistoric man created cave paintings to... 1. Tell stories or recount events that already happened 2. Help teach about techniques (example: hunting) 3. Magical and Religious reasons that say that if you paint an image it might come true.

1.5. Cave Painting were the first form of... VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS!

2. Cunieform

2.1. Sumerians chose Sumer to settle because of the Fertile Land.

2.2. Cuneiform was the first Language, and was created in Sumer, by the Sumerians.

2.2.1. Cuneiform was created to keep track of Business Transactions.

2.2.2. They wrote on clay tablets; The basis for the language were Pictograms.

3. Egyptian Hieroglyphics and the Rosetta Stone

3.1. In the sixth century, invading armies found tombs and temples with inscriptions on almost every wall and surface.

3.2. Scholars believed Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphics were based on expressing words in writing.

3.2.1. The hieroglyphics contained Logographic and Alphabetic Elements.

3.3. Temples were the homes of Gods and Goddesses. The walls were decorated to show respect.

3.4. Priests and Military Leaders were scribes to that they could effectively communicate Religion and in battle.

3.5. In 1798, Egypt was invaded by Napoleon Bonaparte

3.5.1. While invading, they discovered the Rosetta Stone. The Rosetta Stone was a slab with a phrase in Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Demotic, and Greek Language. Jean Francois Champollion deciphered the ancient Hieroglyphics.

3.6. The Rosetta Stone was a slab with inscriptions in Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Demotic, and Greek.

3.6.1. Jean Francois Champollion finally deciphered the Ancient Hieroglyphics using the other languages on the stone.

4. The Phoenician Alphabet

4.1. One sign=One Spoken Sound, All letters began with Consonants.

4.1.1. Alphabet read left to right, and Phoenicians spread it through trading.

4.2. The Greek alphabet later developed, and it had vowels as well as consonants.

4.3. Roman Alphabet is known for being Uppercase letters.

4.3.1. Romans wanted type to be perfectly lined up in rows by establishing The baseline, and the descender.

5. The Codex and The Illuminated Manuscript

5.1. Scrolls were only allowed for sequential usage.

5.1.1. Codex's were developed. New node

5.2. Codex's were developed.

5.2.1. They were more compact, sturdy, portable, easy to reference, and they opened flat.

5.3. Illuminated Manuscripts were then developed by Monks.

5.3.1. These were books that were elaborately decorated along the edges. This technique was reserved only for Religious text, for it was very laborious to make them.

5.4. Various Invasions caused the decline of The Illuminated Manuscript.

6. The Gutenberg Printing Press

6.1. Johannes Gutenberg inroduced Modern Printing.

6.2. A Printing Press is a Hand Press in which ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable handset letters held within a wooden frame.

6.2.1. This was developed from Screw type for pressing grapes and olive seeds.

6.3. Because Gutenberg's father was a merchant and worked with jewelers, Johannes also worked with him.

6.3.1. Being in the work place and his love of reading inspired him to make a "better book". Gutenberg then began experimenting with Metal Typography. He believed that it was more convenient than previous type because the Woodcuts were not durable, and new block had to be carved for each new impression. Metal Type could be reproduced more quickly.

6.4. Gutenberg created metal type devised from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony.

6.5. Gutenberg was also credited with the introduction of il based ink.

6.6. Gutenberg then saw John Fust to invest in his inventions.

6.6.1. The agreement was that If Gutenberg could not repay the loan with interest after 5 years, Fust would get the press, tools, and materials. Fust and Gutenberg's assistant then took credit for the first printed book.

6.7. The Printing Press had a huge impact on the world!

6.7.1. Books were made more rapidly.

6.7.2. Demand Grew > Population became more literate.

6.7.3. Readers wanted books written in their own languages and a greater variety.

6.8. Caxton produced the first book in n English language.

6.9. The Boston Newsletter was the first American News Weekly, and it was published by John Campbell.

6.10. Four MAJOR Printing Processes still used TODAY!

6.10.1. Relief Printing: Oldest, Gutenberg’s Process.

6.10.2. Intaglio: Printmaking, Image Area is etched into the plate surface to hold the ink.

6.10.3. Porous: Basic Stencil Process.

6.10.4. Lithography: Printing from a flat surface.

7. The Linotype Machine

7.1. Clephane Wanted to find an easier way to transcribe his notes and legal briefs and to produce multiple copies.

7.2. Christopher Scholes created the only typewriter than became commercially successful.

7.2.1. He thought that stenographers would get the greatest use out of it.

7.2.2. It was tested by Clehpane, who approached Ottmar Mergenthaler to help with the typesetting machine. Mergenthaler suggested casting the type from a metal matrix versus papier-mache.

7.3. The Linotype Machine allowed type to be set mechanically rather than by hand.

7.3.1. The name Linotype? The fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once.

7.3.2. The first one was installed in The New York Tribune.

7.4. The Keyboard?

7.4.1. 90 characters, no shift key (uppercase letters were separate keys than lowercase), and the arrangement was based on letter frequency. Black Keys: Lowercase White Keys: Uppercase Blue Keys: Punctuation, space, etc.

7.5. Matrix? Molds for type.

7.6. Slugs? The assembled line of type, that is cast as a single piece.

8. Photography= Greek word light + writing.

8.1. The 4th Century Camera Obscura was a way to observe light.

8.1.1. A camera obscura is an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen.

8.2. In the 1500s the camera obscura room was a darkened room with a convex lens inserted onto a wall.

8.3. Between the 17th and 18th centuries, the camera obscura shrunk to the size of a portable box.

8.4. The first successful photograph was created in 1827 by Joseph Niepce.

8.5. Daguerre invented the first practical photo process: The Daguerreotype.

8.5.1. He exposed a light-sensitive metal sheet, which created a direct positive image. The exposure time was reduced to only a half hour, and the image could be made permanent by immersing in it salt.

8.6. William Fox Talbot invented the Calotype process.

8.6.1. The image was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative. From the negative, an unlimited amount of duplicates could be made.

8.7. Archer is credited with The wet collodian process.

8.7.1. Glass plates were used for the negative. Also reduced the exposure time to two to three seconds, and cost less. The plates were coated in collodion, and then exposed and developed immediately.

8.8. Richard Maddox invented the Dry Plate process where gelatin replaced the fragile plates.

8.8.1. Gelatin = Colorless water-soluble glutinous protein.

8.9. Eastman invents Roll Film.

8.9.1. He also establishes the Kodak Company.

8.9.2. Introduced the Brownie Camera.

8.10. James Clerks Maxwell > First Color Photo!

8.11. Edwin Land> INSTANT photography

8.11.1. Instant Photography is A one-step process for developing and printing photographs.

8.12. Muybridge created a zoopraxiscope, which was a device used to project a series of images in a successive phases of motion.

8.12.1. Paved the way to Motion Picture/Movie!

9. The History of Computers

9.1. Konrad Zuse invented first freely programmable computer.

9.2. Mark Series developed by Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper

9.2.1. Used by the navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations.

9.3. Univac (Universal Automatic Computer) was the first commercial computer created by Johns Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly.

9.4. IBM (International Business Machines) devolved the IBM701 EOPM Computer

9.5. First high level programming language: Fortran (The IBM Mathematical Formula Translating System)

9.6. Douglas Engelbart invented the computer mouse.

9.6.1. He wanted to make it a more user friendly tool ; Called a mouse because the cord that connected it to the computer was referred to as a tail.

9.7. ARPANet was the first internet developed to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers.

9.8. Intel 4004? The first Single-Chip Microprocessor.

9.9. IBM introduced the first floppy disk.

9.10. Robert Metcalfe and Xerox = First Ethernet.

9.11. 1970's Computers

9.11.1. Scelbi, Altair, IBM 5100, Apple 1 and 2, TRS-80, and the Commodore PET.

9.12. Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced MS-DOS What is MS-DOS? Computer Operating System that was packaged with the IBM PC.

9.13. 1983= Apple Lisa

9.13.1. First Personal Computer with a GUI (Graphic User Interface). Xerox The Created the first GUI

9.14. 1984= Apple Macintosh

9.14.1. In response, Bill Gates and Microsoft introduce The Windows Operating System