Learning Theories

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Learning Theories by Mind Map: Learning Theories

1. Cognitive Load Theory

1.1. Uses Working Memory to store information,and transfer it to the long term memory. But working memory has a capacity, and this capacity can be overloaded, meaning it has tried to process too much too fast, and can no longer creates schemas, memory structures, for the long term memory. This can result in automation, which is doing something without conscious thought.

1.2. Long term memory is unlimited, and Working memory can only handle seven disconnected items at once.

1.3. There are 3 types of Cognitive Load

1.3.1. Extraneous: Causes Working Memory to focus away from schemas to be transferred to working memory.

1.3.2. Intrinsic: Caused by complex components interacting in the working memory

1.3.3. Germane: Learning resulting in Schema-building and automation.

1.4. This Theory mean in Education, as teachers, we need to provide learning in a way that students will remember it and call upon information from the long term memory unconsciously. This means not overloading and not underloading either; keeping interest and providing challenges, but not multiple things at once. Techinques include chunking information or using modules. With technology, it can be very easy to overload a student's working memory; design needs to be taken into consideration, so the learner isn't focused on too many things at once.

2. Constructivism

2.1. The basic idea is that learners must build on previous knowledge to learn something new; therefore learning is constructed.

2.2. The Brain is NOT a blank slate

2.3. Learners take responsibility for their own learning and are challenged in their learning environments. They learn through collaboration and shared understanding.

2.3.1. Constructivism means that in Education, students can be expected to be challenged in the classroom in order to grow and learn more. They develop their learning based on what they already know.

3. Connectivism

3.1. Most recent learning theory, developed in 2006

3.2. Grew from the development and use of technology in education

3.3. It believes that learning comes from an environment that is made from connections.

3.3.1. You can never know everything. New knowledge is constantly being acquired because information is shifting, growing, and changing frequently. Knowledge must be current and up to date.

3.3.2. Diversity of opinions and openness is crucial

3.3.3. Decision making is an important learning process.

3.4. Connectivism in education teaches students management and leadership, decision-making, designing learning environments onthe web, keeping up to date with media, managing personal information online, and fostering and nurturing connections.

4. Technology Theories & Frameworks

4.1. Media Ecology

4.1.1. Media & technology determine the thoughts and actions of people and society; it is the study of media environments.

4.1.2. Communication is key in these media environments

4.2. Since it believes that technology affects us, in education it has definitely affected how students learn today. The development of computers, ipads, social networking etc. has found a way to keep students interested, to help them with certain issues, to expand the walls of the classroom. it has changed the course of our teaching and learning.

4.3. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT)

4.3.1. Argues that technology does shape human action and society, but that society and human action shape technology.

4.3.2. Based on Multiple concepts Interpretive Flexibility: the technology has a different meaning for different people Relevant Social Groups: depends on the status and position of the group, ex., consumers and producers. Design Flexibility: There are multiple ways of designing a technology.

4.3.3. We also shape technology: we use it to our own potential benefits as learners and teachers. As teachers we use it to aid us in our lessons, to aid us in gaining students' interests. As professionals we use it to develop connections and get information, using PLN's and ePortfolios. Students may use something like an iPad for educational games or a blog for a school assignment. Technology has several different purposes, but it all depends on who, what, where, and why. SCOT is becoming more relevant as schools dive deeper into using technology.

4.4. TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Knowledge)

4.4.1. The Integration of technology into the profession of teaching; combining technology with everything else that is needed to be an effective teacher Technological Knowledge The Teacher's expertise in the field of technology. This allows the teacher to really engage the students and take their learning further. Content Knowledge The teacher's knowledge and expertise in their own subject area; the teacher should be an expert and constantly be expanding their knowledge in their area to teach it to their students. Pedadgogical Knowedgle The teacher's knowledge about teaching, in other words, how to manage their time and students/classroom effectively

4.5. Connections?

4.5.1. Media Ecology and SCOT are opposite of each other, though both emphasize the importance of technology in people and in society.

4.5.2. Connectivism is really the theory used as a part of TPACK since it revolves around technology and its connections and therefore its implications for learning

4.5.3. Understanding how both SCOT and media technology work and combining them really allows us to see how it can influence and be influenced in the classroom, where it is used as TPACK

4.5.4. Using these technology theories and frameworks let teachers take their learners beyond the walls of the classroom and teaches them to use technology appropriately and to their benefit, as well as to the benefit of the teacher.