History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. The Phoenician Alphabet was based on the principle that one sign represents one spoken sound.

1.1. The letters started with consonants.

2. Cave Paintings

2.1. A cave painting was a way to visually communicate with others.

2.2. The three main cave painting sites are; the Lascaux Cave, the Altamira Cave, and the Chauvet Pont d'Arc.

2.2.1. Lascaux Cave:

2.2.1.1. France

2.2.1.2. The cave had to be closed because the carbon dixoide was ruining the paintings.

2.2.2. Altamira Cave:

2.2.2.1. Spain

2.2.2.2. the paintings have red hue because of the red clay that is in the soil.

2.2.3. Chauvet Pont d'Arc:

2.2.3.1. Oldest known cave painting site.

2.2.3.2. The paintings were different than all of the other cave painting sites, this is because the wall had been scraped clear of debris to make the surface smoother and lighter.

2.2.3.3. There was also a 3D effect to the cave paintings.

2.3. 3 reasons why they were created

2.3.1. 1. Story Tellling- to tell stories or recall events that already happened.

2.3.2. 2. Religious/Superstitution- for magical or religious reasons that if an image of a desired event would be painted, it would come true.

2.3.3. 3. Instruction-for instructional aid to help teach hunting techniques.

2.4. 50,000 years ago.

3. Cuneiform and Sumerians

3.1. About Sumerians:

3.1.1. They had a theocratic culture ruled by a priest king.

3.1.2. They were skilled artisans

3.1.2.1. Vases, bowls, and other types of pottery.

3.1.3. Music was an important part of their lives.

3.1.4. They settled in the Sumer region.

3.1.4.1. Because of the fertile ground due to the many bodies of water there.

3.1.5. They practiced agriculture.

3.2. About Cuneiform:

3.2.1. The first written language.

3.2.2. It was created to help keep track of business transactions.

3.2.3. It was written on clay tablets.

3.2.3.1. They made impressions into the clay by:

3.2.3.1.1. Wet the clay and form it into a flat surface.

3.2.3.1.2. Use a wedge shaped stylus made by reeds to make impressions into the clay surface.

3.2.3.1.3. Then lay the clay tablets in the sun to dry and harden them.

3.2.4. Began as a series of pictograms.

3.2.5. Cuneiform evolved over time because the cuneiform evolved into more abstract symbols and the number of characters grew and cuneiform evolved into a wedge shaped language.

4. Hieroglyphics and the Egyptians

4.1. Egypitans

4.1.1. There were many great pyraimids, temples, and tombs in Egypt.

4.1.2. Scholars believe that the concept that influenced the Egyptian hieroglyphics was the concept of expressing words in writing.

4.1.3. They believed that it was important to record and communicate inforation about religion and government

4.2. Hieroglyphics

4.2.1. It was a formal writing system that contained a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements.

4.2.1.1. A logogram is a visual symbol that represents ideas or objects.

4.2.2. The word "Hieroglyphics" was derived from the two Greek words HIERO, which means sacred, and GLYPHIC, which means engraving or writing.

4.2.2.1. Military leaders were trained scribes so they could communicate with each other in battle.

4.2.2.2. Walls of the temples were decorated to show respect to the gods and goddesses.

4.2.2.2.1. Priests were scribes as well because they needed to read and write instructions on the walls for rituals to the gods and goddesses.

4.2.3. Papyrus:

4.2.3.1. It was made from reeds native to Egypt.

4.2.3.1.1. Place reeds cris cross on top of each other, flattened and dried, then rubbed with flat stones until the surface is smooth.

4.3. Rosetta Stone

4.3.1. Napoleon Bonapart invaded Egypt.

4.3.1.1. They discovered the Rosetta Stone when building a French fort in Rosetta.

4.3.2. The three languages have hieroglyphics, demotic, and Greek on it.

4.3.3. It now resides in the British Museum.

4.3.4. Jean Francios Champollion finally deciphered the hieroglyphics on the Rosetta Stone.

4.3.4.1. His breakthrough was he tried to match the hieroglyphics symbols with the Greek name Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses.

5. The Codex and Illuminated Manuscript

5.1. Scrolls

5.1.1. Two ways scrolls were constructed:

5.1.1.1. A long continuous piece of papyrus.

5.1.1.2. Separate sheets glued together at the edges

5.1.2. Drawback to scrolls was that they allowed for sequential usage only. The reader must read the text in the order that it was written.

5.1.2.1. Scrolls were too cumbersome for lengthy works.

5.2. Codex

5.2.1. The Codex is a covered and bound collection of handwritten pages.

5.2.2. The Codex was very compact, sturdy, and it was easy to reference.

5.2.2.1. It can be opened to any part of the book to find something, and it can be opened to any page which made it more portable.

5.2.3. Two ways scrolls were rolled;

5.2.3.1. By rolling them up.

5.2.3.2. Had wooden rollers at each ends.

5.2.4. Christianity adopted the Codex for the Bible.

5.3. Parchment

5.3.1. Parchment is made from a substrate made from animal skin such as; sheep, goat, and cows.

5.3.2. Parchment is made by removing the hair and fat from an animal and the skin was smoothed out. The hide would be soaked in water and then calcium, flour, and salt were added. Then the skin was stretched out flattened and then dried.

5.3.3. Vellum

5.3.3.1. Vellum is a finer quality of parchment mad from skin of young calves.

5.3.4. Parchment replaced papyrus because parchment was more durable than papyrus.

5.4. Dark Ages

5.4.1. The dark ages were when the culture and economics deteriorated.

5.4.2. It is the time period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance.t is the time period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance.

5.5. Christianity

5.5.1. Christianity adopted the Codex for the Bible.

5.5.2. The Church continued to use the codex format for the Bible and scriptures.

5.5.3. Scribes:

5.5.3.1. Monks became scribes of the Church because they created books by hand taking the creation to such an art form.

5.6. Illuminated Maunscript

5.6.1. An Illuminated Manuscript was written by hand; it was done by the monks.

5.6.2. Illumination refers to borders, illustrations, and ornamentation added to each page of the text.

5.6.3. Quill Pens

5.6.3.1. These pens were made for highly intricate and detailed work.

5.6.4. Illuminated Manuscripts were reserved for religious texts. This is because it was very laborious work.

5.6.5. The decline of the creation of Illuminated Manuscripts was the invention a the printing press.

6. Phoencian Alphabet

6.1. Many theories for the origin of the Phoenician Alphabet.

6.1.1. It could have been a direct variation of Hieroglyphics.

6.1.2. There could be ties with Cuneiform or an independent creation.

6.2. The trade culture of the Phoenician merchants spread the use of the alphabet into the parts of North Africa and Europe.

6.3. The long term effect that the alphabet had on social structures was the first widespread script.

6.3.1. The first widespread script.

6.3.2. Its simplicity allowed it to be used in many different languages.

6.4. The alphabet's simple appearance of its characters had an effect on the disintegrated class divisions between royalty and the common man.

6.5. The most notable change in the Greek alphabet was with the adaption of the Phoenician letter forms.

6.5.1. The first widespread script.

7. The Gutenberg Press

7.1. Johannes Gutenbergh introduced modern book printing.

7.1.1. It developed from the technology of the screw-type for pressing grapes and olibe seeds.

7.1.1.1. His father was an upper class merchant and gold smith.

7.1.1.2. He was motivated to find a better way to produce books.

7.1.2. He felt that metal type was better than moveable type because it could be reproduce more quickly once a single mold could be made.

7.1.2.1. He created his metal type by alloy of lead, tin and antimony. They would melt in low temperatures. Cast well in the dye. More durable in the press.

7.1.3. He is credited with the introduction of the oil-based ink.

7.2. Moveable type is metal type or the system of printing that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document.

7.2.1. A matrix is a hard metal punch, it is hammered into a softer copper bar, creating a matrix.

7.3. Paper:

7.3.1. It was developed by Cs'ai Lun in China.

7.4. The first book to be printed was the Bible.

7.5. It impacted comunication:

7.5.1. 1. perfected script and made it easier to read.

7.5.1.1. 2. books were made more rapidly.

7.5.1.1.1. 3. Current information could be shared locally and around the world.

7.5.2. 4. Cost decreased allowing more people to buy them.

7.5.2.1. 5. Demand grew. Population became more literate.

7.5.2.1.1. 6. People wanted books that were written in their won languages and a greater variety.

7.5.3. 7. Book trade began to flourish, as well as industries such as paper making.

7.5.3.1. 8. Economies became stronger.

7.6. Caxton:

7.6.1. He produced the first book in English.

7.6.1.1. The first American news weekly was the Boston Newsletter.

7.7. Major printing processes:

7.7.1. Relief

7.7.2. Intaglio

7.7.3. Porous

7.7.4. Lithography

8. The Linotype Machine

8.1. Christopher Sholes invented the only typewriter that became commercially successful.

8.2. It allowed to to be set mechanically rather than by hand.

8.2.1. Then newspaper changed as a result of the Linotype Machine because it made it possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily baisis.

8.3. The first Linotype Machine became commercially installed in New York Tribune.

8.4. Keyboard:

8.4.1. 90-character keyboard. There is no shift key.

8.4.1.1. Uppercase letters had seperate keys from lowercase letters.

8.4.2. The key board had the same alphabet arrangement twice.

8.4.3. Black keys were lowercase on the left and white keys were uppercase on the right.

8.4.4. Blue keys in the middle were for punctuation digits, small capital letters and fixed width spaces.

8.5. Matrix:

8.5.1. A mold, for letter forms.

8.6. Slug:

8.6.1. The assembled line of type, which is cast as a single piece.

8.7. The Linotype created a justified line of text by mechanically having a space band in between the matrices, which lifts up, increasing the space between the word until the line is justified.

9. History of Photography

9.1. The 4th century camera obscura was used for a way to observe light.

9.1.1. Camera obscura means dark chamber.

9.1.1.1. It was a darkened room with a convex lens inserted into a wall. The outside scene passed through the lens was projected onto the opposite wall.

9.1.1.2. It changed in the 17th and18th centuries because it shrunk to a portable box.

9.2. the name Photography originated from theGreek words for light and writing.

9.3. Joseph Nie'pce created the first successful photograph.

9.4. Daguerre invented the first practical photographic process.

9.4.1. The process was called Daguerreotype.

9.4.1.1. It would be exposed to a light-sensitive metal sheet, which created a direct positive image, the exposure time was reduced to a half-hour. The image could be made permanent by immersing it in salt.

9.5. Calotype process:

9.5.1. It would be exposed onto a light sensitive paper, producing a paper negative.

9.5.1.1. Invented by William Fox Talbot

9.5.2. It is a basis of our modern photographic process because from the negative, an unlimited amount of duplicates could be made.

9.6. Wet collodion process

9.6.1. also called the wet plate process

9.6.1.1. Glass plates were used for the negative, to capture the image when exposed to light.

9.7. The dry plate process

9.7.1. It was a way for useing gelatin for the photographic plates.

9.7.1.1. Gelatin:

9.7.1.1.1. It is a colorless water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissue.

9.8. Eastman manufactured a camera with the market phrase"You press the button, we do the rest."

9.8.1. He established the Eastman Kodak Company.

9.8.1.1. He marketed the Brownie, in 1900. It was an effort to bring photography to the masses.

9.9. The first color picture was taken by James Clerk Maxwell.

9.10. Muybridge paved the way for the motion picture photography.

9.11. Zoopraxiscope:

9.11.1. It was a device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion.

10. History of computers

10.1. Konrad Zuse invented the first freely programable computer.

10.2. Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the mark series of computers.

10.2.1. They were invented to be used by the navy.

10.3. The fist commercial computer was unicac.

10.3.1. It was designed by John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly.

10.3.2. It stands for: Universial Automatic Computer.

10.4. IBM:

10.4.1. This stands for International Buisness Machines.

10.4.1.1. IBM developed the first successful high level programmig language.

10.5. Spacewar was the first computer made.

10.6. Douglas Engelbart invented the computer mouse.

10.6.1. He wanted to invent this tool because he knew that you would always need to point at something on the computer.

10.6.1.1. It was nicknamed the mouse because of the tail that connects it.

10.7. The first internet was called arpanet.

10.7.1. It was developed to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically seperated computers.

10.8. Intel 4004 was the fist single chip microprocessor.

10.8.1. Intel produced it.

10.9. The fist memory disk was the floppy disk.

10.9.1. IBM introduced it.

10.10. Rober Metcalfe and Xerox created the fist ethernet.

10.11. Names of computers during the 1970's.

10.11.1. Scelbi mark-8

10.11.2. altair

10.11.3. IBM5100

10.11.4. Apple 1 and 2.

10.12. Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced MS-DOS.

10.12.1. MS-DOS: It was packed with IBM PC.

10.13. PC: Personal Computer

10.14. Apple introduced the Lisa Computer in 1983.

10.14.1. It was the first computer with a GUI.

10.15. Apple introduced the Apple Macintosh Computer in 1984.

10.15.1. In response to this system Bill Gates and Microsoft introduced the windows operating system.