Education Concept Map

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Education Concept Map by Mind Map: Education Concept Map

1. Historical Perspective

1.1. Mifflen & Mifflen (as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

1.1.1. Anglicans, Presbyterians, and Catholics all vied for control of the school system, and thus the political ideology instilled there

1.2. Teacher Education (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

1.2.1. Reflective of the policies that it is created under and influenced by dominant ideological discourses (Tom, Liston, & Zeichner as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

1.2.2. Traditionally a non-critical role

1.2.3. Alternative discourse encourages teachers to question the taken-for-granted perspectives Adopting comparative, critical, feminist perspectives can help create pedagogy for difference Liston & Zeichner (as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

1.3. Conquest of North American Aboriginals by Europeans (Davies & Guppy, 2010)

1.3.1. Economic inequality and racial segregation

1.4. Mass Immigration to Canada (Davies & Guppy, 2010)

1.4.1. Changed immigration policy responsible for patterns of educational attainment

1.4.2. Targeting majorities from Asia, especially those with advanced educational credentials

1.4.3. Patterns of attainment reflect the immigration system as much as the internal schools themselves

1.5. Klein Revolution in Alberta (Kachur & Harrison)

1.5.1. Restructuring of Education Create a crisis, then resolve before opposition can be mobilized against the new policies (Kachur & Harrison) Ideologically driven- centralizing authority and decreasing equality of opportunity for students Neo-liberal

1.6. Globalization and the Welfare State (Kachur & Harrison)

1.6.1. Ideological and structural changes to global human interaction Global village Expansion of capitalism and factory-model education Rich get richer, poor get poorer, reduction of middle class Religious fundamentalism and ethnic nationalism

1.6.2. Neo-liberal education Best educated workforce leads to strongest economy Knowledge-based economy requires significant investments in education, science, and technology Alberta's resource-based economy struggles to achieve this

1.6.3. Welfare state Reduce class conflict Increase rights of social citizenship Began to crumble in the 1970's Creation of New Right

1.7. New Right Ideology and Educational Reform in Canada (Kachur & Harrison)

1.7.1. Provincial control of education

1.7.2. Education scapegoat for many economic and ideologic problems Progressive education fails to deliver social equality (Social Democrats) Education fails to instil social and moral values , and undermines the stability of "traditional" (Conservatives)

1.7.3. Education reforms address economic concerns Streaming students Emphasis on science, math, and technology Reorganizing schools to match managerial processes of transnational corporations Performance measures to assess school quality More public choice in education to improve efficiency and accountability Increased fiscal austerity Supported by business Saw education as a means for profit-making

1.8. Education in the Klein Revolution (Kachur & Harrison)

1.8.1. Ideology Government services run by corporate principles Privatization

1.8.2. Program Bringing public services into disrepute in order to garner support for their privatization

1.8.3. Heath care and Education prime targets for privatization as a money saving opportunity Not all negative consequences Equitable funding model Decrease in number of school boards Involving parents at a grassroots level Expansion of curriculum options Accommodation of work schedules to meet needs of teachers

1.9. Riding Alberta's Perpetual Debt Cycle (Kachur & Harrison)

1.9.1. Deficit Crisis Deficits were out of control Social expenditures (education being one of many) were the cause of the deficit crisis Crisis cannot be dealt with by increasing revenue through taxes or reliance on economic growth

1.9.2. Massive cuts lead to public outcry Reinvestment in Albertans

1.10. The Life and Times of Liberal Education (Kachur & Harrison)

1.10.1. Equality of opportunity

1.10.2. Social achievement based on merit rather than family, race, gender, or social class

1.10.3. Post-modern recognition of certain basic values common to all cultures and religions Respect & Courtesy Social and personal responsibility Self-discipline Honesty & Courage

1.10.4. Capacity to develop human potential and promote democracy

1.11. Democracy and the Struggle for Public Education (Kachur & Harrison)

1.11.1. Machpherson Genuine, participatory democracy Public education is insufficient foundation for creating a critical, participatory citizenry

2. Philosophical Perspective

2.1. Freud (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.1.1. Id Biological instincts focused on immediate gratification (Freud as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.1.2. Ego Controls and checks the id (Freud as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.1.3. Superego Individual conscience that regulates behaviour to conform to norms (Freud as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.2. Piaget (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.2.1. Cognitive perspective Child's behaviour shaped by parental communication of societal rules through a system of reward and punishment (Piaget as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.2.2. Moral thought Moral realism- concerned with consequences (Piaget as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007) Moral autonomy- concerned with reasons for misbehaving (Piaget as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.3. Social Learning Theory (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.3.1. Reinforcement shaping behaviour to conform with parental and teacher expectations (as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn)

2.3.2. Children learn from observing peers behaviour, and how they a rewarded/punished (as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.4. Pluralism (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.4.1. Integration of different ethnic groups within Canadian schools

2.5. Hidden Curriculum (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.5.1. The tacit teaching of norms, values, and dispositions that occur through students' participation in social experiences in routine school activities (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

2.5.2. Racism (Ghosh, 2008) Long Canadian history of hate-violence against racial and ethnic minorities Colour-blindness maintains white advantage (Blackhouse, as cited in Ghosh, 2008) School is microcosm of society, and thus racism will exhibit those power struggles within the school Cyberbullying a manifestation of globalization and individual competitiveness Eurocentric schooling system; especially manifested in textbooks non-recognition and mis-recognition of contribution of groups of people Teachers exacerbate power inequalities by reinforcing social attitudes through their own prejudices and social attitudes Low teacher expectations result in self-fulfilling prophecies Teachers must be made aware of the subtle ways in which they empower or disadvantage different students Violent attitudes, actions, and environments lend to the creation of the 'other' by producing social separation between dominant and subordinate groups Friere (as cited in Ghosh, 2008) Prejudice and discrimination a result of socialization, and school plays important role in socialization Education is a means through which we can prevent racism Examination and opposition to paradigms that reaffirm racial/gender/class stereotypes Any system that actively discriminates is unacceptable Incorporate many ways of knowing Implementation of the three C's

2.6. Maximally Maintained Inequality (MMI) and Effectively Maintained Inequality (EMI) (Davies & Guppy, 2010)

2.6.1. Nepotism- parents intervene to ensure their offsprings' success in school and other education ventures

2.7. Structural Functionalist belief that schools serve as the 'great equalizer' (Davies & Guppy, 2010)

2.7.1. Promote meritocracy by rewarding best and brightest regardless of social origins

2.7.2. Need for a meritorious workforce and common school ideals should lend itself well to a colour-blind schooling system Race and ethnicity should have very little impact on success at school

2.8. Neo-Marxist belief that schools reproduce social inequalities (Davies & Guppy, 2010)

2.8.1. Stereotyping disadvantaged youth, devaluing culture and skills, and streaming them into lower streams Porter (as cited in Davies & Guppy, 2010) coined the term 'vertical mosaic' which describes the intersection between class, ethnicity, and inequality; connections to how this is reproduced in the school system Canada's ethnic groups are hierarchically divided by power and privilege Ethnic groups ranked in vertical mosaic based on their resemblance to British majority

2.9. Marxist model of reproduction predicts no mobility between those who are disadvanataged racially or ethnically

2.10. Socio-Economic Gradient (Davies & Guppy 2010)

2.10.1. Position on that gradient depends on mixture of economic resources, parental educational attainment, prestige of occupation, and income Hertzman (as cited in Davies & Guppy, 2010) argues that this gradient indicates that students from wealthier families are better prepared for school from day one Can be found at all levels of school, even into the post-secondary level Persist no matter how many factors are take into account Indicate causal link between SES and educational attainment Robust across different measures of education and SES Persist regardless of how one measures SES Persists over time and space

2.11. Gender and Attainment: Equalizing in Fractal Form? (Davies & Guppy, 2010)

2.11.1. Gender imbalance in high school graduation and post-secondary enrolment began to shift in the 1950's, with women overtaking men in 1987

2.11.2. Fractals (Andrew Abbott, as cited in Davies & Guppy, 2010) are living forms that continually subdivide to create new structures at different levels while still reflecting the old form While women with university degrees have increased, the degrees held are typically those that reflect old patterns of feminine expectations, such as nursing and teaching, whereas women are still underrepresented in typically male faculties such as engineering or forestry Increase in women with university education could be due only to the fact that traditionally feminine careers shifted to required university degrees to be hired

2.12. Abella Image (Davies & Guppy, 2010)

2.12.1. Groups in Canada stratified into two groups: whites and visible minorities

2.13. Seasonal Learning (Davies & Guppy, 2010)

2.13.1. Schooling during fall and winter months works to reduce SES-Learning gap, but disadvantaged students suffer a 'summer setback' that middle-class students tend to avoid through access to resources during the summer that promote continuity of learning

2.13.2. Differences between SES groups come from external forces that the school cannot repair

2.14. Social Mechanisms of Educational Inequality (Davies & Guppy, 2010)

2.14.1. Primary Mechanisms Sources of Ability Nature vs. Nurture Socially defined concept of intelligence Family Based Learning Opportunities Nutrition Costs related to sending student to school, including supplies, clothes, and extras amount to around $500 a year Low SES families have fewer resources to provide children with educational products outside the school (such as books, crayons, and educational toys) Parents not as able to provide stimulating learning environments, due to lack of ability, unfamiliarity with school work, etc. Stress Income-related stress Can cause separation, divorce, and family strife Gets under the skin Contexts of Schools and Neighborhoods School composition, type, programs, and streaming affects achievement through distribution of learning opportunities Poor neighbourhoods expose children to unsafe environment Make different educational choices

2.14.2. Secondary Mechanisms Orientations to School and Cultural Mismatches Status Attainment Goldthorpe (as cited in Davies & Guppy, 2010) Schools as source of dampened aspirations Middle-class defined as 'norm' Pygmalion in the Classroom Pierre Bourdieu (as cited in Davies & Guppy, 2010) Annette Lareau (as cited in Davies & Guppy, 2010) Gender Cultural frames of reference Course selection in high school and secondary preparation Increase in need for female-dominated fields to hold a degree, leading to increase in female university enrolment, whereas male 'decline' in education could be accounted for by increase in blue-collar jobs that do not required university education

3. Sociological Perspective

3.1. Socialization (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.1.1. Primary socialization Occurs within the family, development of sense of self and others

3.1.2. Secondary socialization Usually occurs outside the home, such as at school or in the media

3.2. Mead (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.2.1. Self Me Internalized societal attitudes and expectations I Spontaneous individuality of the person

3.2.2. Object to self Influenced by interaction with significant others

3.2.3. Generalized other Able to take this role when you have internalized the attitudes of the society as a whole and can compare and hold judgements

3.2.4. Socially constructed reality Relationships that teachers hold with students serve as secondary socialization, but only in so far as the relationship is not defined as "mentoring" between the two parties and the influence is not explicit

3.3. Cooley (as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.3.1. Looking-glass self Person comes to know self in relation to how they perceive to be perceived by others

3.4. Schutz (or Schmutz...) (as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.4.1. Intersubjectivity Self is developed through typification processes Knowledge about others that we have gained form parents, teachers, etc.

3.5. Teacher expectations (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.5.1. Teachers use unquestioned, common sense knowledge to interpret and respond to pupils' behaviour (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.5.2. Tracking Students sorted into groups based on standardized test scores Student comes to know self in relation to scores and tracking placements, and internalizes this into their persona (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007) Hargreaves Typification of individual students (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.5.3. Teacher's taken-for granted perspective (Baraket &Cleghorn, 2007) Influenced by society and how the teacher has come to see the world, must also take into account how hegemony affects how students are categorized

3.6. Emile Durkheim (as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.6.1. Moral Socialization Schools install an idealized version of society's values

3.6.2. Schooling passes on society's normative system

3.6.3. Political Socialization The role the school plays in instilling the roles and norms that support the current structure of society, including dominant political ideologies

3.7. Jackson & Dreeben (as cited in Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.7.1. Functionalist purposes of hidden curriculum Important lessons derived from hidden curricula that contribute the the development of student personality and identity Part of regular school features

3.8. Peer Group Influence (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.8.1. Relationships with peers that can develop into adolescent sub-culture Participate in norms and values important to maintaining status within that group Fads and crazes

3.9. Popular Culture Influence (Baraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.9.1. Reflected in TV shows, video games, magazines, technological artefacts Where youth draw entertainment from Knowledge is not neutral, but reflective of the group that produces it (Barraket & Cleghorn, 2007)

3.10. James Coleman (as cited in Davies & Guppy, 2010)

3.10.1. Coleman Report Not disparities between schools that mark differences in achievement, but family background Student success more impacted by pre-school preparation for schooling than in what happened at school SES is a powerful predictor of school attainment