DNA and protein synthesis

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DNA and protein synthesis by Mind Map: DNA and protein synthesis

1. amino acid

1.1. biologically important organic compounds composed of amine and carboxylic acid functional groups, along with a side-chain specific to each

2. transcription

2.1. he first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA).

3. codon

3.1. a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.

4. anticodon

4.1. a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA.

5. polypeptide

5.1. a linear organic polymer consisting of a large number of amino-acid residues bonded together in a chain, forming part of (or the whole of) a protein molecule.

6. double helix

6.1. a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis, especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule.

7. dna

7.1. deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.

8. gene

8.1. a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.

9. mutation

9.1. the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes.

10. replication

10.1. The process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of a polynucleotide strand such as DNA.

11. genetic engeneering

11.1. the process of manually adding new DNA to an organism. The goal is to add one or more new traits that are not already found in that organism.

12. bioethics

12.1. the ethics of medical and biological research.