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1. online services

1.1. communication

1.2. real-time information

1.3. commerce

1.4. goverment

1.5. Education

1.6. VLE

1.7. Business

1.8. Entertainment

1.9. Download service

2. online advertising

2.1. search engine results pages

2.2. bannes and pop-up advertisement

2.3. email marketing

3. Online software

3.1. backed up automatically

3.2. can be used on different devices

3.3. updated automatically

3.4. can be used on different operating systems

4. file compression

4.1. Saving memory space on computers

4.2. Files will upload and download more quickly

4.3. Files will better fit restrictions

5. online backups

5.1. if the user's computer fails, the files are saved on servers elsewhere and would still be safe

5.2. cloud storage is often also backed up, so there is double security

6. standalone software

6.1. as it is installed onto the hard drive, it can be used when there is no internet access

6.2. it runs faster than online software with a poor internet connection

7. collaborative working

7.1. users do not need to travel to work together

7.2. save money

7.3. save time

7.4. users can work on the same document instead of having different versions of the same file.

8. file permissions

8.1. read only

8.2. read/write

8.3. full control

9. VoIP

9.1. Adv

9.1.1. Able to contact someone anywhere in the world where there is an internet connection

9.1.2. uses internet-only os no additional cost

9.1.3. reduces travel cost, travel time

9.2. Disadv

9.2.1. relies on internet connection, so it can be a slow connection or it cab cut out

9.2.2. as the audio is being converted to digital, transmitted over the internet connection and converted back agai, the voice quality can be affected

9.2.3. data exchange over the internet is at risk of security threats such as hackers

10. Cloud storage

10.1. adv

10.1.1. You only pay for the storage that you use. You do not have to provide and maintain the hardware

10.1.2. Data can be available anywhere in the world where there is an internet connection

10.2. disadv

10.2.1. It depends on how reliable the host is to access the data

10.2.2. The company may not be using the latest, fastest version of software

10.2.3. You have no control over the files stored and you have ti trust the company to keep them save

10.2.4. The speed of accessing data might be slower than using installed software

11. connection methods

11.1. wireless

11.1.1. Adv not fixed to a stationary computers can be used wherever wireless internet is available

11.1.2. Disadv Needs to have wireless internet available can be less secure than wired tends to be slower than wired

11.2. broadband

11.2.1. Adv better reception and faster than dial-up

11.2.2. Disadv Wired, so has to be used on a stationary computer

11.3. dial-up

11.3.1. Adv can use existing telephone lines, giving connection where broadband is not available

11.3.2. Disadv older technology can give poor reception conversation between digital and analogue signals can cause errors usually slower than other methods

12. Email

12.1. Adv

12.1.1. You can send files as attachments

12.1.2. You can send messages to multiple people at the same time

12.1.3. It is faster than post

12.1.4. You can forward messages you have received to other people

12.1.5. You can record contacts in an address book

12.1.6. Webmail providers tend to store emails on a remote provider, meaning that you can access them anywhere via a web browser

12.1.7. You can set a distrbution lists to quickly send to multiple people at the same time

12.2. Disadv

12.2.1. Viruses can be spread through emails

12.2.2. Phising emails may be received

12.2.3. Employees in a business may spend time on their personal email at work

12.2.4. Emails may be intercepted and read by hackers

12.2.5. Spam can be irritating, wasting time and take up space in your inbox

13. Data Exchange

13.1. Packet switching

13.1.1. Adv Sends data across a network efficiently it means big files which would otherwise clog up the network, can be sent whole Allows efficient movement of data through a network because small packets can choose different roots through the network There is a security benefit because if a packet is intercepted, the hacker will only have one part of the whole file

13.1.2. Disadv If one or more packets are lost or corrupted during transmission, the whole file will not be received correctly.

13.1.3. Process Error control bits data

14. transmission methods

14.1. wireless

14.1.1. infrared Adv reliable Disadv short range devices must be in line of sight can suffer from interference

14.1.2. microwave Adv good for longer distances Disadv can suffer from interference from other devices

14.1.3. satellite Adv good for very long distances Disadv very expensive

14.2. wired

14.2.1. UTP/STP Adv interference lessened due to the twisting cheaper than other methods reliable Disadv slow low capacity used over short distances susceptile to noise, which means that the data can be interfered with if near another digital device or signal

14.2.2. Coaxial Adv reliable Disadv slow low capacity used over short distances thick and physically unflexible susceptible to noise

14.2.3. Fibre optic Adv fast used over long distances little interference Disadv expensive complex to install

15. processing

15.1. client-side

15.1.1. Adv speed - faster because the data is on the client and does not need to move across the internet security - data cannot be intercepted on the client in the way it can when it moves across the internet

15.1.2. Disadv browser-specific - different browsers process scripts in different ways, therefore the web page owner cannot be sure how their web page will appear on the screen computer speed - the web page owner is reliant on the processor speed of the client's computer, so if that is slow then the processing will be slow

15.2. server-side

15.2.1. Adv Efficiency - the information to process does not need to be downloaded to the client's computer Browser independent - It does not matter which browser the user has as the work is done seperatly on the server speed - the processing occurs on the web server , which is likely to be more powerful than a client's computer

15.2.2. Disadv security - when data is transferred across the internet, it is more at risk of security threats overloading - if a lot of users are asking the web server to process data, it could overload the server and cause it to run slowly or crash

16. Laws

16.1. Computer Misuse Act 1990

16.2. Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988

16.3. Freedom of Information Act 2000

16.4. Data Protection Act 1998

17. Threats to data

17.1. Opportunity threats

17.2. computer viruses

17.3. other malware

17.4. phishing

17.5. Accidental damage

17.6. Hackers

18. Protection of data

18.1. Physical barriers

18.2. Password control of access

18.3. Access levels

18.4. Anti-virus software

18.5. Firewall

18.6. Encryption

18.7. Backup and recovery

18.8. Personal safety

19. Data Protection Act 1998

19.1. Process date fairly and lawfully

19.2. Used for the stated purpose

19.3. Data is suitable for purpose - not excessive

19.4. Accurate as well as up-to-date

19.5. Not stored longer than needed

19.6. The data subject's rights are honoured

19.7. Measures taken to protect the data

19.8. Not sent abroad unless a DPA exists there

19.9. Organisations must register

20. SQL

20.1. DDL

20.2. DML