Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 3: History of  Education

1.1. Most Influential Movement

1.1.1. Post-World War II Equity Era

1.1.1.1. Debate about goals of education and if all children should receive the same amount of education. Focuses on both the process and goals of education. Race and education became an important issue.

1.2. Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education

1.2.1. Democratic-Liberal School

1.2.1.1. U.S. education is a continual process, with flaws, that endeavors to provide equal opportunity for all students. Some historians do not see any correlation between equity and excellence. They both must be compromised, but not to the extent of being majorly unbalanced.

2. Chapter 4: Sociology of Education

2.1. Theoretical Perspective Concerning the Relationship Between School and Society.

2.1.1. Functionalism

2.1.1.1. People's actions are an indicator of what their morals and values are. These values and morals are what holds society together.

2.1.2. Conflict Theory

2.1.2.1. Social order is based off of dominant groups and power.  Force and manipulation is used to enforce decisions.

2.1.3. Interactionalism

2.1.3.1. Is a mix of both functional and conflict theories. It is interested in interactions between people, so they can be understood and related to better interactions.

3. Chapter 5: Philosophy of Education

3.1. Describe the particular world view of one of student-centered philosophy of education.

3.1.1. Pragmatism

3.1.1.1. Generic Notes

3.1.1.1.1. Influenced by theory of evolution and 18th century belief in progress. Education bettered society. Experiments, books and traditional information was used to teach children. Educators focused on the need and interest of children. Children were given freedom and responsibility. School reflected community.

3.1.1.2. Key Researchers

3.1.1.2.1. Fancis Bacon, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey.

3.1.1.3. Goal of Education

3.1.1.3.1. The needs of society and the community should be balanced between the needs of the individual, by the school. Provide the students with the knowledge to know how to better the social order. Another goal was growth, and to also included the students into a democratic society.

3.1.1.4. Role of Teacher

3.1.1.4.1. Not authoritarian in which all the knowledge came from. Was like a facilitator. Encouraged, made suggestions, questioned, and helped to plan and teach courses. Wrote the curriculum, and had to have some sort of disciplines to present curriculum.

3.1.1.5. Method of instruction

3.1.1.5.1. Children learned in both groups and by themselves. Asked questions about what they would like to know. Books, field trips and projects were used. Tables and chairs replaced traditional furniture. Children talked, moved around, and worked by themselves or with a group.

3.1.1.6. Curriculum

3.1.1.6.1. Core curriculum or an integrated curriculum. A topic of interest was integrated into the subjects. Began with what they knew and moved toward what they didn't know.

4. Chapter 6: Schools as Organizations

4.1. Major Stakeholders in my District

4.1.1. State Senator- Arthur Orr. House of Representatives- Mo Brooks. State Superintendent- Michael Sentance. Representative on State School Board- Terri Collins. Local Superintendent- Bill W. Hopkins. Local School Board- Jeff McLemore

4.2. Elements of change within school processes and school cultures.

4.2.1. Takes patience, skill and good will. Conflict is necessary. Team building and process and content are important. Requires time ,effort, intelligence, and good will.

5. Chapter 7: Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Curriculum theory

5.1.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

5.1.1.1. Focuses on the needs and interests on the student, rather than the needs of society. Focuses on the relationship between the student and curriculum. Student centered and flexible on how it is taught and what is taught. Emphasis on how to make learning come alive for children. Teacher is not a transmitter of knowledge but considered a facilitator.

5.2. Two dominate traditions of teaching.

5.2.1. Curriculum and pedagogy. Curriculum represents what certain groups believe is important. Pedagogy focuses on what is taught and how it is taught.

6. Chapter 8: Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Describe how Class, Race, and Gender impact educational outcomes.

6.1.1. Class- students from different social class have different education experiences. Race- The race of an individual determines how much education they receive. Because minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as whites do, also minorities rewards for education are less. Gender- determines how much education one typically obtains. Individuals are treated different because they are expected to only be able to achieve certain things.

6.2. Two response of Coleman Study from 1982

6.2.1. 1. What Coleman saw as significant in his findings, others saw them as insignificant. He thought the outcomes of private schools were significantly different than public schools, other researchers argue that there is not. 2. Coleman thought where a student went to school and achievment had to do with race and socioeconomic background. Others say schools doesn't effect this, instead school segregation based off of race and socioeconomic status are responsible for educational gaps.

7. Chapter 9: Educational Inequality

7.1. Two types of cultural deprivation

7.1.1. 1.Working social class and non white families typically do not have the cultural resources and are at a disadvantage. 2. The failure of many compensatory education programs are based on assumptions about why some children are at a disadvantage.

7.2. Four School-centered explanations for educational inequality.

7.2.1. 1. School financing- Some communities are able to raise more money for schools than other, creating an inequality. 2. Effective School Research- Students receive different education based on race. 3. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices- The upper class have better curriculum and teaching methods than the lower classes. 4.Curriculum and ability Grouping- Tracking creates inequality because it does not allow students to learn to the full extent that they could otherwise.

8. Chapter 10: Educational Reform

8.1. Two school based reforms

8.1.1. School-Based Partnership

8.1.1.1. School-business partnerships were created to ensure that schools were producing the graduates that business needed.

8.1.2. Teacher Quality

8.1.2.1. The highest qualified teachers are supposed to be hired in every school. Data shows that even though teachers met the NCLB standards, they still were not the best qualified for the classroom.

8.2. Two societal, economic, community, or political reforms.

8.2.1. Societal Reform

8.2.1.1. Combined, this reform is supposed to reduce the achievement gap and help the effects of poverty. When society provides the basic needs for children, they are able to focus their attention on learning.

8.2.2. Community Reform

8.2.2.1. Not to educate just the whole child, but the whole community. Focuses on meeting the child's and their families needs. Endeavors to improve at risk neighborhoods and prevent problems.

9. Chapter 2: Politics of Education

9.1. The Four Purposes of Education

9.1.1. Intellectual

9.1.1.1. Goal is to teach basic cognitive skills and to help students obtain higher-order thinking skills.

9.1.2. Political

9.1.2.1. To teach basic laws of society and prepare students to participate in politics.

9.1.3. Social

9.1.3.1. To attempt to solve social issues.

9.1.4. Economic

9.1.4.1. Prepares students to benefit society when they enter the labor force.

9.2. Role of the School: Conservative Perspective

9.2.1. Conservatives considers the role of the school as a vital aspect to preparing children to be both economically productive and socially stable.