COMPLEX GERUND | INFINITIVE

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COMPLEX GERUND | INFINITIVE by Mind Map: COMPLEX GERUND | INFINITIVE

1. GERUND

1.1. WHEN TO USE

1.1.1. VERB AS NOUN

1.1.1.1. BEGINNING OF SENTENCE

1.1.1.1.1. SIMPLE GERUND ( verb + -ing)

1.1.1.1.2. PERFECT GERUND (having + past participle) --> refers to past

1.1.1.1.3. PASSIVE GERUND (being + past participle)

1.1.2. AFTER A PREPOSITION

1.1.2.1. SIMPLE GERUND ( verb + -ing)

1.1.2.1.1. 'I'm looking forward TO meeting the President.'

1.1.2.1.2. 'She is good AT skiing.'

1.1.2.2. PERFECT GERUND (having + past participle) --> refers to past

1.1.2.2.1. 'They are guilty OF having stolen the car.'

1.1.2.3. PASSIVE GERUND (being + past participle)

1.1.2.3.1. 'He is fed up WITH being criticised.'

1.1.3. AFTER CERTAIN EXPRESSIONS

1.1.3.1. USELESS / WASTE OF TIME

1.1.3.1.1. It's no use + -ing

1.1.3.1.2. There is no point in + ing

1.1.3.1.3. It's no good + ing

1.1.3.2. PROBLEM / DIFFICULTY

1.1.3.2.1. PROBLEM

1.1.3.2.2. DIFFICULTY

1.1.3.3. TIME

1.1.3.3.1. HAVE + a + ADJECTIVE + TIME

1.1.4. AFTER CERTAIN VERBS

1.2. COMPLEX GERUNDS

1.2.1. VOICE

1.2.1.1. ACTIVE VOICE = you do the action

1.2.1.1.1. VERB + VERB-ING OR PREPOSITION + VERB -ING etc

1.2.1.2. PASSIVE VOICE = something is done to you

1.2.1.2.1. VERB + BEING + PAST PARTICIPLE OR PREPOSITION + BEING + PAST PARTICIPLE etc.

1.2.2. PRESENT or PERFECT GERUND

1.2.2.1. PRESENT GERUND

1.2.2.1.1. OFTEN IT CAN REFER TO ACTIONS BOTH IN THE PRESENT & THE PAST

1.2.2.2. PERFECT GERUND

1.2.2.2.1. WE WANT TO EMPHASIZE AN ACTION TAKES PLACE IN THE PAST

2. INFINITIVE

2.1. WHEN TO USE

2.1.1. AFTER AN ADJECTIVE

2.1.1.1. VOICE

2.1.1.1.1. ACTIVE VOICE = you do the action

2.1.1.1.2. PASSIVE VOICE = something is done to you

2.1.2. AFTER CERTAIN VERBS

2.1.2.1. VOICE

2.1.2.1.1. ACTIVE VOICE = you do the action

2.1.2.1.2. PASSIVE VOICE = something is done to you

2.1.2.2. SIMPLE | CONTINUOUS

2.1.2.2.1. SIMPLE

2.1.2.2.2. CONTINUOUS

2.1.3. AFTER NOUNS FORMED FROM VERBS THAT TAKE THE INFINITIVE

2.1.3.1. e.g.

2.1.3.1.1. AGREE

2.1.3.1.2. PLAN

2.1.4. AFTER SUPERLATIVES & FIRST , SECOND etc.

2.1.4.1. SUPERLATIVE

2.1.4.1.1. 'He's the best violinist to have ever played in Catalunya.'

2.1.4.2. FIRST , SECOND etc

2.1.4.2.1. 'He was the first person to step on the moon.'

2.1.5. AFTER QUESTION WORDS except WHY

2.1.5.1. AFTER EXPRESSIONS WITH QUANTIFIERS

2.1.5.1.1. e.g.

2.1.5.2. e.g.

2.1.5.2.1. WHERE

2.1.5.2.2. HOW

2.1.6. AFTER COMPOUND WORDS BEGINNING WITH SOME / ANY

2.1.6.1. e.g.

2.1.6.1.1. THING

2.1.6.1.2. WHERE

2.2. COMPLEX INFINITIVES

2.2.1. SIMPLE | CONTINUOUS

2.2.1.1. SIMPLE

2.2.1.1.1. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE --> always

2.2.1.2. CONTINUOUS

2.2.1.2.1. VERB + TO BE + VERB-ING --> temporary

2.2.2. VOICE

2.2.2.1. ACTIVE VOICE = you do the action

2.2.2.1.1. VERB + INFINITIVE

2.2.2.2. PASSIVE VOICE = something is done to you

2.2.2.2.1. VERB+ TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE

2.2.3. PERFECT INFINITIVE

2.2.3.1. PERFECT INFINITIVE -->refers to past only

2.2.3.1.1. WOULD LIKE WOULD LOVE WOULD HATE WOULD PREFER WOULD RATHER + (TO) HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE [no 'to' after 'would rather']