Cognitive Theorists

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Cognitive Theorists by Mind Map: Cognitive Theorists

1. ZPD can be determined in education

1.1. Demonstrate the solution to see if the child can imitate

1.1.1. The space in between independent performance and assisted performance

1.2. Have the child cooperate with a child of a higher IQ (not consistent with Vygotsky himself)

1.3. or, in addition to above, explain the how to solve the problem, ask leading questions - that is, assist the child

2. Piaget

2.1. Main Ideas

2.1.1. Stages of learning

2.1.1.1. Changes from stage to stage represent ways children think, not the amount of what they know.

2.1.1.2. Sensorimotor

2.1.1.2.1. 0-2

2.1.1.3. Preoperational

2.1.1.3.1. 2-7

2.1.1.4. Concrete Operational

2.1.1.4.1. 7-11

2.1.1.5. Formal Operational

2.1.1.5.1. 11-adult

2.1.2. Schema

2.1.2.1. Building blocks of thinking. Acquired and developed over time

2.1.2.2. Knowledge is assimilated by fitting existing schema in to a new construct

2.1.2.3. Socialization allows us to test our schema against others'

2.1.3. Play and experience as education

2.1.3.1. Play helps children build schema

2.1.3.2. Students need both social and academic growth to happen simultaneously (Montessori)

2.1.3.3. This leads to many discussions on the goal of education, what education "is,"

2.1.4. Equilibrium

2.1.4.1. Piaget's theory supports the idea of equilibrium and a person's desire to remain in that state.

2.1.4.2. When the world appears predictable and our personal experiences make sense to us we are in the state of equilibrium.

2.1.4.3. Interacting with others and the concept of acquiring language unsettle a person's equilibrium and they are forced to reconstruct their beliefs and understanding to return to the neutral state.

2.2. 21stC Evaluation

2.2.1. Lessons don't have to be tailored to individual students, rather creating a space that allows multiples of different intelligence to effectively contribute

2.2.1.1. Divergent lesson planning

2.2.1.1.1. Despite evidence, early education teachers are pressured to conceived teacher-directed "academic training."

2.2.2. Everyone has a schema, so there is a place to begin with all learners in a diverse classroom.

2.2.3. How do you accommodate learners in different stages?

2.2.3.1. The 5th grade classroom with children age 10 and 11, some will be concrete thinkers, some formal, some will be transitioning.

2.2.4. Egocentrism may not be a true component of Piaget's learning theory (Ted Talk)

3. Vygotsky

3.1. Main Ideas

3.1.1. Zone of Proximal Development

3.1.2. Leads to the development of scaffolding and assisted problem solving

3.1.2.1. "Collaborative activity on yet-to-be-mastered tasks is central to effective instruction" (Berk and Winsler, 1995, p. 136).

3.1.3. m

3.1.4. Form and content develop together

3.1.4.1. Logical thinking as concept in action

3.2. 21stC Evaluation

3.2.1. Begin to solve the problem, see if child can finish it

3.2.2. Levels of thinking develop and change over time

3.2.2.1. Logical thinking is underdeveloped until about age 12

3.2.3. Collaborative problem solving is perhaps the most important skill 21stC learners can master

3.2.3.1. Workplaces are full of social hierarchies, with each individual able to contribute unique ideas to a complex problem

3.2.3.2. Novices can learn from the experienced through witnessing proper behaviors. In music education teacher preparation, we refer to this as authentic learning context.

3.2.4. Late translations of his works lead to misconceptions and inaccuracies in theoretical framework

3.2.4.1. The 1978 description is often used to define ZPD

3.2.4.2. "More capable peers" not in line with his thinking

3.2.4.2.1. The partners should equally contribute unique expertise to a task when problem solving

3.2.4.3. Early experiments used inaccurate constructs when reporting the efficacy of ZPD

4. Applied: Music Education

4.1. Piaget

4.1.1. A huge practical issue in music education is that we are really good at teaching students to replicate music. We are lacking in teaching them how to understand music. How to express and manipulate musical constructs and theory. We produce "automatons" that sound good, but do not understand what they are doing.

4.1.1.1. Children "play" musically. It isn't until we tell them a musical idea is wrong that they stop.

4.1.2. Music learning and instrument learning requires attention to Piaget's stages of learning. Certain complex tasks, such as composition, are attainable to different degrees at different age groups.

4.1.2.1. Developing the ability to understand and learn new tasks can be enhanced by accessing existing musical schema.

4.1.3. Especially in general music classrooms, music making can be constructed so those with different experience and ability levels can all meaningfully contribute to the performance

4.1.4. Freedom to "follow his own routing" can be fostered when creating an explicit goal (create a song using these instruments) but leaving the path to success divergent. Success is understanding the form and content through manipulation, not merely imitating.

4.2. Vygotsky

4.2.1. Music learning and instrument learning requires attention to ZPD. There is a constant balance of individual and group-level attention to this construct. With beginners, you select performance literature that reinforces prior concepts but also introduces unlearned techniques that are attainable with assistance.

4.2.2. Improvisation is a sort of intellectual imitation based game that teaches children new musical concepts and how to apply them.

4.2.2.1. "Call and Response" is a classic musical form that utilizes this method of learning. A more experienced leader sets the call and the less experienced imitates and manipulates the call by changing pitch, rhythm, rest, etc.

4.2.2.1.1. In the classroom, the caller is often the teacher and the respondents the students. However, there is always the potential to reverse this.

4.2.3. Music is a social act that stimulates an "interaction of the 'ideal'"

4.2.4. Music making is a complex web of identities. The "problem to solve" is navigating individual "who I am's" as they express "who are we." This requires collaborative problem solving, but the evidence is hard to display (Small, 1999).

5. Synthesis

5.1. Similarities

5.1.1. Learning is social, but the is a difference (noted below)

5.1.1.1. Both can be synthesized in to Bronfenbrenner's model

5.1.2. Cognitive abilities change and develop over time

5.1.3. Children act as theorists, constantly testing hypotheses

5.1.4. Scaffolding (V) and Assimilation (P) are similar constructs in how knowledge is acquired. Learning capability in healthy children is linear.

5.1.5. Logical thinking develops later in childhood

5.1.6. Both theories cause us to question what is the purpose of education

5.2. Differences

5.2.1. Assessing understanding/Aquiring

5.2.1.1. V: Imitation leads to replication. When a child can do it, they've learned it.

5.2.1.2. P: Replication is not understanding. Counting pennies does not demonstrate understanding of numerical value.

5.2.2. Logical Thinking

5.2.2.1. V: Underdeveloped until age 12

5.2.2.2. P: Develops during age 7-11

5.2.3. Social Learning

5.2.3.1. V: Social interaction, language, and culture is emphasized

5.2.3.2. P: Children are doing the learning on their own

6. Applied Behavior Analysis

6.1. V: ABA therapy relies on social interactions and language skills of others in order to bring the learner up to speed with their neuro-typical peers.

6.2. Children with autism are lacking language and social skills, so ABA therapy contrives situations in order to produce learning opportunities.