Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Educational Reform Ch.10

1.1. Two school based Reforms

1.1.1. 1. School business partnerships-In the 1980s an issue arose among business leaders that the schools educational programs were not producing the kind of graduates necessary to rebuild the US economy. As a result, several school business partnerships were formed. For example the Boston Compact of 1982.

1.1.2. 2. School-to-work programs-During the 1990s, the idea was incorporated from school business partnerships. The idea was to extended the vocational emphasis to non-college bound students that would allow them to be successful employers. This stress the importance of work-based learning. The school-to-work system in every state had to contain at least three core elements.

1.2. Two Economic Reforms

1.2.1. 1. In poor school districts, funding was need to serve children in order to provide "a thorough and efficient education." In 1990, the court ruled that funding was to be equalized.

1.2.2. 2. The SFRA implemented a formula for distributing funds to school districts based on student's needs. The state believed "money follows the child. This approach will be equally distribute funding to at risk children in the state."

2. Educational Inequality Ch.9

2.1. Two types of Cultural Deprivation theory

2.1.1. Theory 1-Poor have a deprived culture. The middle class value work and initiative as well as seeing school as a value of success. The poor see the opposite of the middle class. They have no desire to work and seek initiative or defining school as a means of being successful and seeking social mobility.

2.1.2. Theory 2-Compensatory education programs such as Project Head Start helps with the educationally and economically disadvantaged students. This program provides cultural and educational activities to help them be more successful learners. The program helps families by providing parenting and literacy skills to help with their child's academic development.

2.2. Four school-centered explanations for educational inequalities.

2.2.1. 1. School Financing-Public schools are funded locally and through state government while private schools are funded by personal family funds. The more affluent communities are able to provide their students and children with more resources and allows to be more successful in education. Children from lower socioeconomic statuses in public schools are provided with the same opportunities as those in private high socioeconomic communities.

2.2.2. 2. Effective school research-There are school centered processes that help to explain unequal achievement by different groups of students. If there are significant differences in student performance between schools within lower socioeconomic neighborhoods, then there will have to be school effects.

2.2.3. 3. Gender and Schooling-Women tend to be more caring, nurturing, and connected. Many feminists argue that schools should revise their curriculum to emphasis caring and connectedness. They believe that schools should require both boys and girls to exposed to and taught these characteristics.

2.2.4. 4. Curriculum and ability grouping-In ability grouping, students are divided up based on their ability and the curriculum. It is more predominate in secondary education rather elementary education. This is an issue for some that believe that tracking is emotional and ideological.

3. Curriculum of Pedagogy Ch.7

3.1. The developmentalist curriculum is one that puts the student's needs before the needs of society. This approach was concerned for making sure the curriculum related to each child's needs and interest at any particular developmental stage. This approach also stress flexibility with emphasis on the development of each student's individual capacities. It related schooling to life experiences that in turned made the educational process come alive in a more meaningful manner.

3.2. Two dominant traditions

3.2.1. Mimetic A viewpoint that students are suppose to be taught specific knowledge. The best method to do this is the didactic method. This method relies on the lecture or presentation as the soul form of communication.

3.2.2. Transformative This method has a purpose to change the student in a meaningful way. It provides a multi-dimensional theory of teaching. The transformative traditions tends to reject the scientific model of teaching, instead views teaching as an artistic endeavor.

4. Schools as Organization Ch.6

4.1. Major Stakeholders in my district

4.1.1. State Senator-Larry Stutts (District 6)

4.1.2. House of Representative-Johnny Mack Morrow( District 18)

4.1.3. State Superintendent-Michael Sentance

4.1.4. Representative State School Board-Jeffrey Newman (District 7)

4.1.5. Local Superintendent-Greg Hamilton (Franklin County)

4.1.6. Local School Board-Ralton Baker (District 1), Terry Welborn (District 2), Pat Cochran (District 3), Shannon Oliver (District 4), Mike Shewbart (District 5)

4.2. Elements of Change

4.2.1. Communities have a major impact on schools good or bad

4.2.2. Politics play a crucial role in forming the cultural of any individual school. It is difficult to make change in schools because politics are so embedded.

4.2.3. "When one speaks of school process, what we really are identifying are the powerful cultural qualities of schools that make them so potent in terms of emotional recall, if not in terms of cognitive outcome."

5. Philosophy of Education Ch.5

5.1. Pragmatism

5.1.1. Generic Notions-Dewey's ideas of education proposed that educators start with the needs and interest of child in the classroom, allow the child to participate in planning his or her course of study, employ project method or group learning, depend heavily of experiential learning

5.1.2. Key researchers-George Sanders Pierce and William James: credited with having described Pragmatism through the biblical phrase " By their fruits ye shall know them." John Dewey: saw the world as dynamic and developing. Francis Bacon: Emphasized experience posited firmly within the world of daily existence. John Locke's emphasis on the world of experience is particularly important for latter developments in the philosophy of education. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: believed that individuals in their primitive state were naturally good and that society corrupted them.

5.1.3. Role of teacher-The teacher acts as a facilitator in that they encourage, offer suggestions, questions, and help plan and implement course of study. The teacher also writes curriculum and must have a command of several disciplines in order to create and implement curriculum

5.1.4. Goal of Education-The primary role of education was growth. Dewey stated that education had no other goals than growth--growth leading to more growth

5.1.5. Method of Instruction-The method of instruction used is problem-solving or inquiry method. This method allows students to work individually or in collaborative groups. The students pose questions about what they want to know and discover how to answer those questions.

5.1.6. Curriculum-Dewey's notion of core curriculum was also known as an integrated curriculum. Progressive educators support starting with contemporary problems and working from the known to the unknown also known as the curriculum of expanding environments.

6. Sociological Perspectives Ch.4

6.1. Theoretical perspective of the relationship between school and society

6.1.1. Functionalism-Durkheim said "moral values were the foundation of society and he believed that education was of crucial importance in creating the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony."Functionalists tend to assume that consensus is the normal state in society and that conflict represents a break down of shared values.

6.1.2. Conflict Theory-Karl Marx: Believed that the class system, which separated owners from workers and workers from the benefits of their own labor, made class struggle inevitable. Max Weber: Believed that class differences alone could not capture the complex ways human beings form hierarchies and belief systems that make these hierarchies seem just and inevitable. Willard Waller: Believed rational models of school organization only disguise the inherent tension that pervades the schooling process. Randall Collins: Argued that educational credentials, such as college diplomas, are primarily status symbols rather than indicators of actual achievement. Bourdieu and Passeron: Believed the concepts of cultural and social capital are important because they suggest that, in understand the transmission of inequalities, one ought to recognize that the cultural and social characteristics of individuals and groups are significant indicators of status and class position.

6.1.3. Interactionalism-Basil Bernstein argued that the structural aspects of the educational system and the interactional aspects of the system reflect each other and must be viewed wholistically. He examined how speech patterns reflects student's social class backgrounds and how students from working class backgrounds are at a disadvantage in the school setting because schools are essentially mid-class organizations

6.2. Five effects of schooling on individuals

6.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes-When taking into accounts student's social class background, generally it is found that the higher the social class background of the student, the higher his or her achievement level. More recent research, also indicates that in schools where students are compelled to academic subjects and where there is consistent discipline, student's achievement levels increase. Heynes found that 6th and 7th grade students who went to summer school, use the library, and read a great deal in the summer, made great gains in knowledge than students who didn't study in the summer.Thus, it is clear that, even taking into account the importance of individual social class background when evaluating the impact of education, more years of schooling lead to greater knowledge and social participation.

6.2.2. Teacher Behavior-Teachers are extremely busy people; They must also wear many occupational hats: Instructor, disciplinarian, bureaucrat, employer, friend, confidant, educator, and etc..This can lead to role strain, where such conflicting demands are placed on teachers that they cannot feel totally comfortable in any role. Teachers expectations play a major role in encouraging and discouraging students to work to their full potential.

6.2.3. Student Peer Groups and Alienation-Stinchcombe found that students in vocational programs and headed toward low status jobs were the students that most likely to join a rebellious subculture. Students subcultures continue to be important after high school. The four major types of college students: Careerist, Intellectuals, Strivers, and Unconnected. Students cultures play an important role in shaping students educational experiences.

6.2.4. Inadequate Schools- Numerous critics of contemporary schooling have pointed out that the way in which children are educated today will not prepare them for productive and fulfilling lives in the future. urban education, in particular, has failed to educate minority and poor children. Moreover, differences between schools and school systems reinforce existing inequalities. Students who attend suburban and private schools get a better educational experience than other children.

6.2.5. Gender-Although girls usually start school cognitively and socially ahead of boys, by the end of high school, girls have lower self-esteem and aspirations than boys do. Traditionally, textbooks have been biased against women by ignoring their accomplishments and social contributions. Often, gender bias is subtle. Over the past two decades, the gender gap in academic achievement has all but disappeared.

7. History of U.S. Education Ch.3

7.1. Reform Movement

7.1.1. Education for Women and African Americans-Allowing women to become a part of the educated population was a very big step in moving the educational system into what it is today. Educational systems today are a female dominated occupation. African American had to work a little harder to have the privileges that they have today in our society. I believe that everyone should treated equal and equal opportunities in what they pursue in life. People should not feel inferior because of the color of their skin, gender, or the background they came from. This reform has made a tremendous impact on education today.

7.2. Historical Interpretation

7.2.1. Conservative Perspective-I do agree with the liberals that disadvantaged and immigrated children should have some of the same opportunities as their peers. With that being said, the traditional curriculum should not have to be changed in order to meet those needs. Because the traditional curriculum has be tampered with, it is starting to effect the students in learning their heritage. I agree with Ravitch that the curriculum ought to be fair and non-racist. With that being said, the efforts at multiculturalism are often historical incorrect and neglect the fact that the heritage of our civilization is western.

8. Politics of Education Ch.2

8.1. Purposes of education

8.1.1. Intellectual To teach cognitive skills Transmit specific knowledge Develop Higher Order Thinking (HOT) skills

8.1.2. Political To instill patriotism Give students a understanding of basic laws of society Assist in bringing diverse cultural groups into a common political order Adapt students to participate in the political order

8.1.3. Social To help solve social issues To ensure social bonding by working as one of many institutions To socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of society

8.1.4. Economic Prepare students for the workforce Guide students in the direction of their most suitable occupation Schools should have "at least" an indirect role in this process

8.2. Perspectives

8.2.1. Role of the school Liberal role-All students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society and teach children cultural diversity

8.2.2. Explanations of Unequal Education Performance Liberal role-Individual students begin students with different life chances; some groups have significantly more advantages than others

8.2.3. Definition of Educational Problems Conservative role-Decline of authority, values, and cultural literacy

9. Equality of Opportunity Ch.8

9.1. Educational outcomes of Class, Gender, and Race

9.1.1. Class-Class has an impact on how students perform based on their social class. Students from higher economical status are more likely to finish high school and continue their educational career. On the other hand, students from a lower economic status are more likely to be a high school dropout and most do not continue higher education.

9.1.2. Race-"An individual's race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve." In 16-24 year old, 5.2% of white students, 9.3% of African American students and 17.6% of Hispanic American students are likely to drop out of school. In 17 year old only, 89% of white, 66% African American, and 70% of Hispanic American are reading in the intermediate level.

9.1.3. Gender-In today's society, females are less likely to dropout of high school and out perform males in most all subjects with the except of mathematics. Liberals argue the gap being closed between men and women in education is the success of educational reforms.

9.2. Colemon Study 1982

9.2.1. Response 1-Catholic or private schools were found to be more beneficial for the low-income students rather than public schools. It is especially common in urban areas.

9.2.2. Response 2-The composition of race and socioeconomic statuses of a school shows a great influence on student achievement..