The Ways of Reason

The Ways of Reason

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The Ways of Reason af Mind Map: The Ways of Reason

1. Chapter 1: The Talmudic Method

1.1. A. Dialectic investigation defined

1.2. B. Parties in debate

1.2.1. 1. Group

1.2.2. 2. Individual

1.2.3. 3. Talmud

2. Chapter 2: Elements of Debate

2.1. A. The principal elements of debate

2.1.1. 1. Statement

2.1.2. 2. Question

2.1.3. 3. Answer

2.1.4. 4. Contradiction

2.1.5. 5. Proof

2.1.6. 6. Difficulty

2.1.7. 7. Resolution

2.2. B. The foundations of the elements

2.2.1. 1. Understanding statements

2.2.2. 2. Creating syllogisms

2.2.3. 3. Acceptance and rejection of ideas

3. Chapter 3: Types of Statements

3.1. A. Subject and predicate defined

3.2. B. Statements divided according to their subjects

3.2.1. 1. Categorical

3.2.2. 2. Particular

3.2.3. 3. Partial

3.3. C. Statements divided according to their predicates

3.3.1. 1. Simple statement

3.3.2. 2. Qualified statement

3.3.2.1. a. Certain

3.3.2.2. b. Possible

3.3.2.3. c. Doubtful

3.3.2.4. d. Impossible

3.3.3. 3. Statement of exclusion

3.3.4. 4. Statement of exception

3.3.5. 5. Conditional statement

3.3.6. 6. Hypothetical statement

3.3.7. 7. Compound statement

3.3.7.1. a. Simple compound

3.3.7.1.1. (1) Equal (both parts novel)

3.3.7.1.2. (2) Unequal (only one part novel)

3.3.7.2. b. Disjunction

3.3.8. 8. Preclusive statement

3.3.9. 9. Statement of discrepancy

3.3.10. 10. Comparative statement

3.3.11. 11. Consequent statement

3.4. D. Statements divided according to their style

3.4.1. 1. Extensive

3.4.2. 2. Concise

3.4.3. 3. Literal

3.4.4. 4. Rhetorical

3.4.5. 5. Metaphorical

4. Chapter 4: Juxtaposition of Statements

4.1. A. Equivalent statements

4.2. B. Variant statements

4.3. C. Opposite statements

4.3.1. 1. Diametrically opposed

4.3.2. 2. Contradictory

4.4. D. Converse statements

4.4.1. 1. Complete converse

4.4.2. 2. Limited converse

4.4.3. 3. Contrapositive converse

4.5. E. Obverse statements

4.6. F. Incongruent statements

5. Chapter 5: Inferences

5.1. A. Inference defined

5.2. B. Inferences which are not logically necessary

5.3. C. Logically necessary inferences

5.3.1. 1. Inferences of categorical affirmative statements

5.3.1.1. a. Contrapositive

5.3.1.2. b. Limited converse

5.3.2. 2. Inference of categorical negative statements

5.3.2.1. a. Complete converse

5.3.3. 3. Inferences of partial affirmative statements

5.3.3.1. a. Absolute opposite

5.3.3.2. b. Limited contrapositive

5.3.3.3. c. Limited converse

5.3.4. 4. Inferences of partial negative statements

5.3.4.1. a. Absolute opposite

5.3.4.2. b. Limited contrapositive

5.3.4.3. c. Limited converse

6. Chapter 6: Truth and Falsity of Statements

6.1. A. Figurative or hyperbolic statements

6.2. B. Literal statements

6.2.1. 1. Simple statement

6.2.1.1. a. Simple predication must be true

6.2.2. 2. Qualified statement

6.2.2.1. a. Qualification must be true

6.2.3. 3. Statement of exclusion

6.2.3.1. a. Exclusion must be true

6.2.4. 4. Statement of exception

6.2.4.1. a. Simple predication must be true

6.2.4.2. b. Exceptional case must be true (Denial of the exceptional case does not deny the simple predication)

6.2.5. 5. Conditional statement

6.2.5.1. a. Simple predication must be true

6.2.5.2. b. Condition must be true (Denial of the condition does not deny the simple predication)

6.2.6. 6. Hypothetical statement

6.2.6.1. a. Dependency must be true

6.2.7. 7. Compound statement

6.2.7.1. a. Combination of simple predications must be true

6.2.8. 8. Preclusive statement

6.2.8.1. a. Combination of affirmative and negative predications must be true

6.2.9. 9. Statement of discrepancy

6.2.9.1. a. Combination of apparently contradictory predications must be true

6.2.10. 10. Comparative statement

6.2.10.1. a. Combination of similar predications must be true

6.2.11. 11. Consequent statement

6.2.11.1. a. Antecedent must be true

6.2.11.2. b. Consequent must be true

6.2.11.3. c. Dependency must be true

7. Chapter 7: Creating Syllogisms

7.1. A. Classical syllogism

7.1.1. 1. Syllogism defined

7.1.2. 2. Premise defined

7.1.3. 3. Conclusion defined

7.1.4. 4. Invalidity of the classical syllogism

7.2. B. Analogism

7.2.1. 1. Analogism

7.2.2. 2. A fortiori

7.2.3. 3. Invalidity of an analogism or a fortiori

7.2.3.1. a. Subjects not similar

7.2.3.2. b. Subjects not greater or lesser

7.2.3.3. c. Another similar subject exists without the given predicate

7.3. C. Hypothetical syllogism

7.4. D. Disjunctive syllogism

8. Chapter 8: Acceptance and Rejection of Ideas

8.1. A. Proofs for acceptance of statements

8.1.1. 1. Postulated proof

8.1.1.1. a. Axiomatic principles

8.1.1.2. b. Sense perceptions

8.1.2. 2. Proof through convention

8.1.2.1. a. Common sense

8.1.2.2. b. Accepted tradition

8.1.3. 3. Logical proof

8.1.4. 4. Proof that the opposite statement is false

8.2. B. Proofs for rejection of statements

8.2.1. 1. Postulated disproof

8.2.1.1. a. Axiomatic principles

8.2.1.2. b. Sense perceptions

8.2.2. 2. Disproof through convention

8.2.2.1. a. Accepted tradition

8.2.3. 3. Logical disproof

8.2.3.1. a. Indirect disproof

8.2.3.2. b. Reductio ad absurdum

8.2.3.3. c. Dilemma

8.3. C. Statements which remain doubtful

8.3.1. 1. Proof rejected

8.3.1.1. a. Proof irrelevant to statement

8.3.1.2. b. Invalid syllogism

8.3.2. 2. Disproof rejected

8.3.2.1. a. Disproof irrelevant to statement

8.3.2.2. b. Invalid syllogism

8.3.2.3. c. Rebuttal

8.3.2.3.1. 1. According to your reasoning

8.3.2.3.2. 2. Just the opposite

8.3.2.3.3. 3. That proves my point, from there is a proof

8.4. D. Theory

8.5. E. Validity of deductions and proofs

8.5.1. 1. Relationship of subject to predicate

8.5.1.1. a. What it is in itself

8.5.1.2. b. What is unique to it

8.5.1.3. c. Its attributes

8.5.1.4. d. What it is in relation to something else

8.5.2. 2. Relationship of predicate to subject

8.5.2.1. a. Potential

8.5.2.2. b. Actual

8.6. F. Stylistic proofs and disproofs

8.6.1. 1. The statement as a whole

8.6.2. 2. The statement in terms of its parts

9. Chapter 9: Elements of Debate in Detail

9.1. A. Statement

9.1.1. 1. First-hand knowledge

9.1.2. 2. Explanation

9.1.2.1. a. Full explanation

9.1.2.2. b. Forced explanation

9.1.2.2.1. 1. Forced explanation

9.1.2.2.2. 2. Presumption

9.1.3. 3. Inference

9.1.4. 4. Reported information

9.2. B. Question

9.2.1. 1. Query

9.2.2. 2. Question of principle

9.3. C. Answer

9.3.1. 1. Answer

9.3.2. 2. Determination

9.4. D. Proof

9.4.1. 1. Demonstration

9.4.2. 2. Validation

9.5. E. Contradiction

9.5.1. 1. Direct contradiction

9.5.2. 2. Opposition

9.6. F. Difficulty

9.6.1. 1. Objection

9.6.2. 2. Apparent contradiction

9.6.3. 3. Refutation

9.7. G. Resolution

9.7.1. 1. Settlement

9.7.2. 2. Alternative

10. Chapter 10: Order of Study

10.1. A. Be sensitive to the author's language

10.2. B. Formulate a complete thought

10.3. C. Determine purpose of statement

10.4. D. Is the purpose actually served by the statement?

10.5. E. Establish the truth of every premise

10.6. F. Distinguish between the text and the elucidation

10.7. G. Recognize whether terms are synonymous or not

10.8. H. Recognize whether statements are synonymous or not

10.9. I. Identify multiple purpose statements

10.9.1. 1. Proof by reported information

10.9.2. 2. Ascribed difficulty

10.10. J. Review and reconsider the truth of each statement

11. Chapter 11: Logical Terminology

11.1. A. Logical terms

11.1.1. 1. Essence-Definition

11.1.2. 2. Parts

11.1.3. 3. Quality

11.1.4. 4. Quantity

11.1.5. 5. Material

11.1.6. 6. Form

11.1.6.1. a. Abstract definitive form

11.1.6.2. b. Concrete physical form

11.1.7. 7. Action

11.1.7.1. a. Involuntary

11.1.7.2. b. Voluntary

11.1.8. 8. Affection

11.1.9. 9. Kind, Species and Higher Kind

11.1.10. 10. Cause

11.1.10.1. a. Generative cause

11.1.10.2. b. Effective cause

11.1.11. 11. Means

11.1.12. 12. Motive

11.1.13. 13. Purpose

11.1.14. 14. Result

11.1.15. 15. Attribute

11.1.15.1. a. Inherent, resting on, or associated

11.1.15.2. b. Incidental

11.1.15.3. c. Precedes or follows in time

11.1.16. 16. Position

11.1.17. 17. Situation

11.1.18. 18. Movement

11.1.19. 19. Time

11.1.20. 20. Relation

11.1.21. 21. Subject

11.1.22. 22. Comparison

11.1.23. 23. Difference

11.1.24. 24. Contrast

11.2. B. Priority

11.2.1. 1. Temporal

11.2.2. 2. Conceptual

11.2.3. 3. Logical

11.3. C. Logical Order

11.3.1. 1. Arrangement

11.3.1.1. a. Theoretical knowledge

11.3.1.2. b. Practical knowledge

11.3.2. 2. Definitions

11.3.3. 3. Analysis

11.3.3.1. a. Primary

11.3.3.2. b. Secondary

11.3.3.3. c. Tertiary

12. Appendix: