Social Change

Janis Ward-CatlettLDSL 743 - Minor 1

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Social Change von Mind Map: Social Change

1. Dimensions and Sources of Change

1.1. The nature of social change

1.1.1. What is changing

1.1.2. Level at which change takes place Individuals Attitudes Beliefs Aspirations Motivations Groups Communication Confliction resolution Cohesion Unity Competition Acceptance and rejection Organizations Alterations in structure and function Hierarchy Communication Role relationship Productivity Recruitment Socialization Institutions Alterations in marriage and family Education Religious practices Society Modification of the social stratification Economic Political systems

1.1.3. What is changing and at what level

1.1.4. Magnitude of change Incremental or marginal Comprehensive Revolutionary

1.1.5. Intention Deliberate Unplanned

1.2. Conceptualizations of social change

1.2.1. Different group activities

1.2.2. Change in the structure of society

1.2.3. Change in the structure and functioning of society

1.2.4. Change in social relationships

1.2.5. Change in social structure and social relationships

1.3. Sources of change

1.3.1. Technology Creates new alternatives; generates new problems Considered a factor in alienation

1.3.2. Ideology Legitimization and rationalization of behavior and social relationships Promote status quo or contribute to change

1.3.3. Competition Contributes to social change in both ecological and organizational contexts Stimulates motivation

1.3.4. Conflict Conscious, intermittent, and personal Emphasizes the differences between parties and minimizes similarities

1.3.5. Political and Economic Forces Three levels Federal State Local Induce change Regulate Create Engage Class position Lifestyle Values Interaction patterns Power Mobility

1.3.6. Globalization Integration of world economy Social contradictions Wage inequalities Weaken the power to tax

1.3.7. Structural Strains Population imbalances Anomie Scarcity Role and value conflicts Inconsistencies Status anguish

2. Theories of Change

2.1. Evolutionary

2.1.1. Charles Darwin Natural laws Progress Development Advancement

2.1.2. Robert A. Nisbet Object of inquiry Social class Kinship Culture Law Society Other

2.1.3. Auguste Comte Law of the three stages Theologoical Metaphysical Positive

2.1.4. Lewis Henry Morgan Three main stages of evolution Savagery Barbarism Civilization

2.1.5. Herbert Spencer Course of natural development Relatively simple patterns More complex structures

2.1.6. Gerhard and Jean Lenski and Patrick Nolan Basic aspects of the evolutionary process Continuity Innovation Extinction

2.1.7. Walt W. Rostow Five stages of economic growth Traditional society Preconditions for takeoff Takeoff Drive to maturity Age of high mass consumption

2.2. Conflict

2.2.1. Three main theorists Karl Marx Five major stages of history Lewis Coser Effects of conflict Ralf Dahrendorf Division of society

2.3. Structural-Functional

2.3.1. Talcott Parsons Three systems Personality Organism Culture Sources of social change Endogenous Exogenous

2.3.2. Willian F. Ogburn Culture change Material Nonmaterial

2.4. Social-Psychological

2.4.1. Max Weber

2.4.2. Everett E. Hagen Traditional society Authoritarian Uncreative Noninnovational Modern society Creativity Curiosity Openess

2.4.3. David C. McClelland

3. Patterns of Change

3.1. Evolution

3.1.1. Key aspects of evolutionary patterns Directionality Novelty Variety Selectivity

3.1.2. Stages Primitive Archaic Historic Early modern Modern religious

3.1.3. Change patterns Legal systems Religion Stratification Energy utilization Food production

3.2. Diffusion

3.2.1. Crucial elements Innovation Characteristics of influence Type of decision Adopter categories Communication through channels Time Among members of a community

3.2.2. Five stages of adoption process Awareness Interest Evolution Trial Adoption

3.2.3. Models Center-periphery Proliferation-of-centers

3.2.4. Components Temporal Spatial

3.3. Acculturation

3.3.1. Voluntary

3.3.2. Involuntary

3.3.3. Forced

3.3.4. Planned

3.4. Revolution

3.4.1. Ideal types Leftist Rightist

3.4.2. Six patterns Jacquerie Millenarian Rebellion Anarchistic Rebellion Jacobean Communist Revolution Conspiratorial Coup d'Etat Militarized Mass Insurrection

3.4.3. Systems Class Status Power

3.5. Modernization

3.5.1. Patterns Industrial Acculturative Induced

3.5.2. Spheres Economic Political Cultural

3.6. Industrialization

3.6.1. Distinctions Preindustrial Early industrial Mature industrial Postindustrial

3.6.2. Factors of increased division of labor Growth Technology Development

3.6.3. Change in population patterns Birth Death Marriages Migration

3.7. Urbanization

3.7.1. Highest rates Japan Uruguay

3.7.2. Lowest rates Israel United Kingdom

3.7.3. Heterpolises Diverse blend of ethic groups Economic activities Lifestyles

3.7.4. High tendencies Personal disorganization Mental breakdown Suicide Delinquency Crime Corruption Disorder

3.8. Bureaucratization

3.8.1. Changes toward greater rationality Decision making Improved operating efficiency More effective attainment of goals

4. Spheres of Change

4.1. The Family

4.1.1. The changing functions of the American family Economic Productive Religious Recreational Educational Status conferring Reproductive

4.1.2. Current trends Marriage Delay Forgo Family size Decreased Postponed childbearing Streamlined family Planned childlessness

4.1.3. Divorce Higher for blacks than whites Higher in the West Higher percentage for females

4.1.4. The sexual revolution Sexual liberation Greater freedom for women Alternatives to marriage Trivialized sex Diminished intimacy Fewer lasting commitments

4.2. Population

4.2.1. Consequences of rapid growth rates

4.2.2. Demographics transition Mortality Fertility Migration Age-sex composition

4.3. Stratification

4.3.1. Types of stratification systems Caste system Hereditary Endognamous Permanent Open class system Estate system

4.3.2. Toward greater equality

4.3.3. Social mobility Intergenerational Intragenerational

4.4. Power Relations

4.4.1. Components Force Authority Charismatic Traditional Bureaucratic/rational legal Influence

4.4.2. The dynamics of power relations Hunting and gathering Simple horticultural Advanced horticultural Agrarian Industrial

4.4.3. Decentralization of power Power elite Mortgage bankers Real estate developers Builders Landowners Number of centers increases when.... Population increases Ethnic composition becomes more heterogeneous Functional specialization increases Number of self-conscious social classes increases Immigration increases

4.4.4. Law and power

4.5. Education

4.5.1. Elementary and secondary education Emphasis Motivation Cooperative learning Mental hygiene Educational innovations

4.5.2. Higher education

4.5.3. The great training robbery

4.5.4. Publish or perish

4.5.5. Publish and perish

4.6. The Economy

4.6.1. Production Primary Secondary Tertiary

4.6.2. Distribution Reciprocative Redistributive Exchange

4.6.3. Consumption Pleading nag Persistent nag Forceful nag Demonstrative nag Sugar-coated nag Threatening nag Pity nag

5. Duration of Change

5.1. Duration of Change from a Historical Perspective

5.1.1. Evolution of modern technology Modern craft age Machine age Power age Atomic age

5.1.2. Economic development Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 - Takeoff Stage 4 - Mature stage Stage 5 - Age of high mass consumption

5.1.3. Principal elements in technology Power Tools Work skills Material Transportation Communication

5.2. Transitory Social Changes

5.2.1. Fads and Fashions Fads Different Worth notificing Fashion Innovation Selection

5.2.2. Lifestyles Specific set of values for classifying populations Traditionalists or heartlanders Modernists Cultural creatives Counterculture lifestyles Hippies Yippies The Oneida Community Economic communism Mutual criticism Complex marriage

5.2.3. Cults Types of social movements Revolutionary Reactionary Reform Expressive Life cycle Incipiency Coalescence Institutionalization Fragmentation Demise

6. Reactions of Change

6.1. Social Stimulants

6.1.1. Desire for prestige

6.1.2. Contact

6.1.3. Friendship obligations

6.1.4. Social class

6.1.5. Authority

6.1.6. The problem of "fit"

6.1.7. Timing

6.1.8. Participation in decision making

6.1.9. Competition

6.2. Psychological Stimulants

6.2.1. Motivations to change Desire for prestige Economic gain Wish to comply with friendship obligations

6.2.2. Perceived needs Subjective Time and culture bound

6.2.3. Communication patterns Use of arousal of fear Organization of the message Primacy-versus-recency

6.2.4. Attitudes Precursors of behavior Evaluative predispositions

6.2.5. Personal influence Compliance Identification Internalization

6.3. Cultural Stimulants

6.3.1. Context cultures Low-context culture Messages are explicit Fragile bonds High-context culture Less information Strong bonds

6.3.2. Cultural integration Low Conflict Confusion Waste Insecurity Social unrest High

6.4. Economic Stimulants

6.4.1. Perception

6.4.2. Costs Organizational Initial Continuing Social Ridicule Isolation Ostracism

6.4.3. Vested interests

6.5. Resistance to Change

6.6. Social Barriers

6.6.1. Vested interests

6.6.2. Status interests

6.6.3. Social class

6.6.4. Ideological resistance

6.6.5. Group solidarity

6.6.6. Authority

6.6.7. Fear of the unfamiliar

6.6.8. Forms of rationalization

6.6.9. Organized opposition

6.7. Psychological Barriers

6.7.1. Habit

6.7.2. Motivation Family system Class and race Religion and ethical evaluations Legal concepts Concept of the nation-state

6.7.3. Ignorance

6.7.4. Selective perception

6.7.5. Ineffective communication Homophily Heterophily

6.8. Cultural Barriers

6.8.1. Fatalism

6.8.2. Ethnocentrism

6.8.3. Norms of modesty

6.8.4. Cultural integration

6.8.5. Incompatibility

6.8.6. Motor patterns

6.8.7. Superstitions

6.9. Economic Barriers

6.9.1. Cost

6.9.2. Perceived profitability

6.9.3. Limited economic resources

7. Impact of Change

7.1. The Social Impact of Technology

7.1.1. Social effects of invention Dispersion Succession Convergence

7.1.2. Technological innovations affect Wealth Power Culture patterns Gender relationships Work Diet

7.2. Responses to Change

7.2.1. Alienation Sense of powerlessness Sense of meaninglessness Sense of normlessness Value isolation Self-estrangement Social isolation

7.2.2. Retreatism

7.3. Social Change and Social Disorganization

7.3.1. Culture lag

7.3.2. Social morphological revolution Population explosion Population implosion Population diversification

7.4. Unintended Consequences

7.4.1. Change in character

7.4.2. Change in scope

7.5. Coping with Change

8. Costs of Change

8.1. Economic Costs

8.1.1. Economic growth Increased range of choices Greater control over the environment More services and goods Improved status of women Release from hard labor Greater humanitarianism Lower prices

8.1.2. Environmental costs Solid waste Air pollution Water pollution Climate modification

8.1.3. Toward modernity - the costs of transition Cataloging Trade-offs

8.2. Social Costs

8.2.1. Automobile

8.2.2. Quality of life

8.2.3. Ecological undermining of the food economy

8.2.4. Reduction of options

8.2.5. Urban living

8.2.6. Underutilization of college-educated people

8.2.7. Dilemmas of scientific specialization

8.3. Psychological Costs

8.3.1. Robopathology

8.3.2. Anxiety and insecurity

8.3.3. Mental illness

9. Strategies of Change

9.1. Targets, Agents, and Methods of Planned Social Change

9.1.1. Targets of change Target systems Individuals Organizations Communities Societies Aspects of individual functioning Feelings Values Attitudes Perceptions Skills Actions Characteristics Social Environmental Task

9.1.2. Change agents Leaders Directors Advocates Backers Technicians Administrators Organizers Supporters Workers Donors Sympathizers

9.1.3. Methods Empirical-rational Normative-reeducative Individuals Small groups Large organizations Communities Power-coercive

9.2. Violence

9.2.1. Violent strategies of change Ghetto riots University confrontations Guerrilla warfare Oppressive measures Insurrection Terrorism Revolution

9.3. Nonviolence and Direct Action

9.3.1. Approaches Indirect approach Direct approach Attitude change Third parties

9.3.2. Direct-action tactics Demonstrations Noncooperation Direct intervention

9.4. Social Movements

9.4.1. Characteristics of dysfunction Organization structure Patterns of recruitment Ideology Personal commitment Opposition

9.4.2. Change strategies Bargaining Coercion Persuasion

9.4.3. Change tactics Requirements Breadth Simplicity Flexibility Choice Opposition Ideology Public opinion Subordination Partial inequality Dependency Subjugation

9.4.4. Accomplishments Labor movements Product-safety movement Civil rights movements Women's movement

9.5. Law and Social Change

9.5.1. Judiciary

9.5.2. Legislative

9.5.3. Executive Branch

9.5.4. Administrative agencies