Chapter 16: Population, Urbanization, and Environment

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Chapter 16: Population, Urbanization, and Environment von Mind Map: Chapter 16: Population, Urbanization, and Environment

1. Demography: The Study of Population

1.1. *Analyzes the size of and composition of a population and studies how and why people move from place to place.

2. Population Growth

2.1. Fertility

2.1.1. *Crude Birth Rate: Number of live births in a given year for every 1,000 in a population. 1. "Crude" because it is based on entire population, not just women in their child bearing years. 2. Ignores differences between various categories of the population.

2.2. Infant Mortality Rate

2.2.1. *Number of deaths among infants under 1 in a given year for each 1,000 live births in a given year.

2.3. Mortality

2.3.1. *Crude Death Rate: Number of Deaths in a given year for every 1,000 people in a population.

2.4. Migration

2.4.1. In-Migration Rate: Number of people entering an area for every 1,000 people in the population Migration is sometimes voluntary like moving from a small town to a large city.

2.4.2. Out-Migration Rate: Number of people leaving an area for every 1,000 people in the population. Involuntary Migration does occur such as people who are victims of natural disasters.

2.4.3. Net Migration Rate: Difference between in and out migration rate

2.5. *Rapid Population Growth is troubling due to the countries already struggling to support their current populations.

3. Population Composition

3.1. *Makeup of a population at any point in time.

3.2. Sex-Ratio

3.2.1. *Number of males for 100 females at any time in a nations population.

3.3. Age-Sex Pyramid

3.3.1. *Graphic representation of the age and sex of a population

4. History and Theory of Population Growth

4.1. *2012 World Population Growth reaches 7 billion

4.1.1. *1999 World Population Growth reaches 6 billion *1987 World Population Growth Reaches 5 billion *1974 World Population Growth reaches 4 billion

4.2. Malthusian Theory

4.2.1. Thomas Robert Maltus: AKA "the dismal parson" English economist and clergymen warned population growth would lead to social chaos. Believed would increase in a geometric progression (2,4,8,16,32/etc.)

4.3. Demographic Transition Theory

4.3.1. *Thesis that links population patterns to societies level of technological development. Stage 1: Have high birth rates because of the economic value of children and the absence of birth control. Stage 2: Onset of industrialization brings a demographic transition as death rates fall due to greater food supplies and scientific medicine. Stage 3: Fertility falls because most children survive to adulthood and high living standards make raising kids expensive. Stage 4: Birth rate keeps falling partly because dual income couples gradually become the norm and partly because the price of raising children still increases.

4.4. Zero Population Growth

4.4.1. *The rate of reproduction that maintains population at a steady level.

5. Urbanization: The Growth of Cities

5.1. The Evolution of Cities

5.1.1. *Domesticating animals and cultivating crops allowed people to settle. Emergence of cities led to higher living standards and job specialization.

5.1.2. *In the dark ages people began to move into walled settlements

5.1.3. *Ethnicity defined communities as residents tried to keep out people who differed from them. Ghettos were first used to describe the neighborhood in which of the Jews of Venice were segregated.

5.1.4. *Industrial Revolution required tremendous productive power causing cites to grow bigger.

5.2. The Growth of U.S Cities

5.2.1. *Urban expansion was greatest in the northern states

5.2.2. *The Civil War gave a boost to Urbanization as factories strained to produce weapons.

5.2.3. *Growth of cities like New York and Chicago marked the era of the metropolis Metropolis: A city that socially and economically dominates an urban area. In the 1880s steel girders and elevators allowed buildings to rise 10 or more stories.

5.3. Suburbs and Urban Decline

5.3.1. *Urban Decentralization: People leave downtown areas for outlying suburbs.

5.3.2. *As many older cities of the snowbelt lost higher income tax payers to the suburbs they struggled to pay for expensive social programs for the poor who remained.

5.3.3. *Inner cities became synonymous with slums, crime, drugs, unemployment, poverty, and minorities.

5.4. Post-Industrial Sunbelt Cities

5.4.1. *Soaring populations in cities like Los Angeles and Houston show reflect a population shift to the sunbelt where 62% of U.S people live.

5.5. Megalopolis: The Regional City

5.5.1. *The U.S census bureau recognizes 382 metropolitan statistical areas includes 1 city with 50,000 people or more.

5.5.2. *551 micropolitan statistical areas at least 1 city with 10,000-50,000

5.5.3. *Combined Statistical Areas include both micro and metro. The biggest CSA's contain millions of people and extend into several states.

5.6. Edge Cities

5.6.1. *Business centers some distance from the old downtowns

5.7. Changes to Rural Areas

5.7.1. *In the 1990s the rural rebound due to migration to places with special beauty such as lakes and ski areas. people were also drawn to the slower pace of life with less traffic and crime.

6. Urbanism As A Way Of Life

6.1. *Ferdinand Tonnies was a German sociologist that studied how life in the industrial metropolis differed from life in rural villages.

6.1.1. *Saw in urbanization a weakening of close long lasting social relations in favor of the brief and impersonal ties or secondary relationships typical of business.

6.2. Gemeinschaft

6.2.1. *Type of social organization in which people are closely tied by kinship and tradition.

6.3. Gesellschaft

6.3.1. *Type of social organization in which come together only on the basis of individual self-interest.

6.3.2. *Way of life in which people are motivated by their own needs rather then s desire to improve the well being of everyone.

6.4. *Emile Durkheim was a french sociologist agreed with Tonnies but felt that urbanites don't lack social bonds hey simply organize social life differently than rural people.

6.5. Mechanical Solidarity

6.5.1. *Social bonds based on common sentiments and shared moral values. (Rural Life) Societies had once been built on likeliness

6.6. Organic Solidarity

6.6.1. *Social bonds based on specialization and interdependence. (Urban Life) Durkheim thought urban life offered more individual choice, moral tolerance, and personal privacy than people find n rural villages. Durkheim saw social life was built on difference.

6.7. *Georg Simmel was a German sociologist studied how urban life shaped individual experience

6.8. Blase Attutude

6.8.1. *Tune out much of what goes on around them so they can focus their time and energy on the people and things that really matter to them.

7. Urban Ecology

7.1. *The study of the link between the physical and social dimensions of cities.

7.1.1. One issue that ecologists study is why cities are where they are as well as the physical designs of cities.

8. Urban Political Economy

8.1. *Applies Karl Marx analysis of conflict in the workplace to conflict in the city.

8.2. *Political economists claim that city life is defined by larger institutional structures, especially the economy.

8.3. *Capitalism is the key to understanding urban life because this economic system transforms the city into real estate traded for profit and concentrates wealth and power in the hands of the view.

9. Urbanization in Poor Nations

9.1. *The third urban revolution is happening in the developing world because many poor nations have entered have entered the high growth stage 2 of the demographic transition.

9.2. *Falling death rates have fueled population increases in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

9.3. *Many cities in less economically developed nations are unable to meet the basic needs of their populations.

10. Environment and Society

10.1. Ecology

10.1.1. *The study of the interaction of living organisms and the natural environment.

10.2. Natural Enviornment

10.2.1. *Earth's surface and atmosphere, including living organisms, air, water, and soil, and other resources necessary to retain life.

10.3. *Pollution, global warming and acid fog are results from human causes.

10.4. The Global Dimension

10.4.1. *Regardless of political divisions among nations the planet is a single Ecosystem.

10.5. Technology and The Environmental Deficit

10.5.1. *Societies at intermediate stages of technological development, being both larger and richer have a somewhat greater capacity to affect the environment. *Higher income societies produce more goods in turn higher standards of living increase the amount of solid waste.

10.5.2. *Environmental Deficit: profound long-term harm to the natural environment caused bu humanities focus on short-term material affluence.

11. Culture: Growth and Limits

11.1. *The idea of more is an idea at the heart of our cultural definition of living well.

11.2. Logic of Growth

11.2.1. *Powerful technology has improved our lives and new discoveries will continue to do so.

11.2.2. *The logic of growth believes that scientists will find a way out of any problem that growth places in our path. *Environmentalists counter that the logic of growth is flawed because it assumes natural resources will always be plentiful

11.3. Limits to Growth

11.3.1. *Humans must put in place policies to control the population, production, and the use of resources in order to avoid environmental collapse.

12. The Rain Forests

12.1. *People in rich nations pat rich prices for wood. Now the rain forests are less then 1/2 their original size and continue to shrink 1% annually.

12.2. Global Climate Change

12.2.1. *Cleanse the atmosphere of carbon dioxide

12.2.2. *Vital to maintaining the chemical balance of the atmosphere The problem is plants life on earth is shrinking and rain forest are being destroyed which is releasing carbon dioxide.

12.2.3. *Global Warming: A rise in Earth's temperature due to an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

12.3. Declining Biodiversity

12.3.1. *As rain forests are cleared several dozens of unique species of plants and animals cease to exist each day. 1. Biodiversity allows for a varied source of food. 2. Vital genetic resource used by medical and pharmaceutical researchers to produce hundred of new impounds that cure diseases and improve our lives.

12.4. Environmental Racism and Sexism

12.4.1. *Environmental Racism: Patterns of development that expose poor people, especially minorities to environmental hazards. Historically factories that spew pollution have been located in neighborhoods of poor people and people of color.

12.4.2. *Environmental Sexism: Patterns that place girls and women at a disadvantage and threaten their well-being. 3/4 of the water fetching is carried out by women and girls who earn no pay and are kept from schooling or other work for pay.

13. Toward a Sustainable Society and World

13.1. *Our egocentric outook sets our own interests and standards for how to live, but a sustainable environment demands an ecoentric outlook.