IMMIGRATION (1)

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IMMIGRATION (1) von Mind Map: IMMIGRATION (1)

1. establishes support station for trade market and travellers = CAPE COLONY

1.1. high costs

1.1.1. sold land for immigrants from Europe

1.1.1.1. conflicts with indigenous people

1.1.1.1.1. pushed to interior

1.1.1.1.2. made arrangements

1.2. growing immigration

1.2.1. THE BOERS (= european settlers)

1.2.1.1. 1700ish

1.2.1.1.1. Immigration Stop

1.2.1.1.2. 1794

1.2.1.2. FREE BOER REPUBLICS

1.2.1.2.1. 1854

1.2.1.2.2. 1856

2. first men thought they would stay a few years and then return, by then having saved lots of money

3. reasons why second generation radicalizes: poverty, bad living standard, btw identities, don´t feel respected->discrimination

4. Chinese, Japanese, and other Asian countries (migrated to the western states

5. My Son the Fanatic

5.1. Message

5.1.1. deals with struggles of second generation immigrants->they feel cast out of the society they grew up in due to racism/failed immigration

5.1.2. seeking solace from poverty and discrimination in religion

5.1.3. shows why Muslims who grew up in the West get radicalized->clash of cultures and generations; lack of immigration

6. the British are not a race, but a gathering of different races and communities

7. German (escaping economic problems and seeking political freedom), British, Irish (poverty and famine encouraged emigration)

8. indigenious people lost their country and identity

9. suffering of the Native Americans (genocide)

10. South Africa

10.1. Terra nullius

10.1.1. = land that belongs to no one

10.2. Europeans

10.2.1. Portuguese

10.2.1.1. 1488

10.2.1.1.1. Bartolomeu Diaz

10.2.1.2. Seaway India

10.2.1.2.1. bypass arabic/turkish trade

10.2.2. Dutch

10.2.2.1. 1652

10.2.2.1.1. Jan Van Riebbeck

10.2.3. England

10.2.3.1. 1806

10.2.3.1.1. CAPE COLONY = official Birtish Crown Colonie

10.2.3.2. 1870 Cecil Rhodes

10.2.3.2.1. 1889 "The British South African Company"

11. USA

11.1. God led Moses and his people to the promised land, a land flowing with milk and honey

11.2. Amercian Dream

11.2.1. Dream come true

11.2.1.1. The promises of the American Revolution

11.2.1.1.1. Americans did not have their own government by 1776, the British had authority over them and took taxes

11.2.1.1.2. the colonies fought for their freedom and independence

11.2.1.1.3. most equal society in the world for white men, htey had the right to vote and make decisions and they had the freedom to own black slaves

11.2.1.2. Europeans wanted to bring progress and expand westwards thus the indigenious people had to resettle

11.2.1.3. dreaming of equality

11.2.1.3.1. first black slaves arrived in North America in the early 17th century, more than two hundred years later President Abraham Lincoln made them free but not equal

11.2.1.3.2. during the civil rights movement of the 1960s Martin Luther King Jr. spoke for African Americans: "I have a dream"

11.2.2. Nightmare

11.3. Pilgrims - The promised Land

11.3.1. Puritans in 1620 believed they were establishing the New Isreal - they are guided by god

11.3.2. initial cultures lose their identity for all the American people to blend into one new race

11.3.3. George Washington as the "American Joshua" (Joshua is the son of Moses)

11.4. The Melting Pot

11.4.1. different elements "melting together" with a common culture

11.4.1.1. metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous - describing a fusion of nationalities, cultures and ethnicities

11.4.2. Lee Jihyun describes that she wanted her kids to come to a more globalized place, but lso to gain a special edge when they go back home to Korea

11.4.2.1. Goose family migration combines educational ambition with a desire for leisure, as the korean school system does not offer an individual thought in teaching the students

11.4.3. immigrants often face a lot of difficulties trying to maintain their initial cultures, especially if they differ from the American standards

11.4.4. the term "salad bowl" as a more accurate discription of immigrants living together with other cultures in coexsistence whilst staying true to their own culture

11.5. History of Immigration

11.5.1. first wave 1790-1820

11.5.1.1. Groups of immigrants came for a variety of religious, political, and economic reason

11.5.1.2. Groups of immigrants came for a variety of religious, political, and economic reason

11.5.2. second wave 1820-1860

11.5.2.1. the pilgrims identified themselves with the ancient Hebrews --> viewed the New World (USA) as the New Canaan

11.5.2.1.1. Canaan in the old testament refers to the land west of the river Jordan, it was the country Moses led his people to when God told him to free them from Egyptian slavery

11.5.2.1.2. those fleeing from religious prosecution often referred to this biblical account when they envisioned the American colonies as the "New Canaan"

11.5.2.2. Immigrants came for new opportunities because in Europe, peasants displaced from agriculture and artisans were made jobless from the industrial revolution. Some immigrants received "American Letters" which were encouraging friends and relatives to join them in America.

11.5.3. third wave 1880-1914

11.5.3.1. Immigrants came over to America for more job opportunities and freedom of religion

11.6. Asian Americans

11.6.1. Asian Immigrants to the United States

11.6.1.1. 1907 Gentleman's Agreement with Japan, wherein the Japanese government agreed to prohibit emigation to the United States

11.6.1.2. Asian Americans were largely prohibited from naturalization by law between 1880 and 1965

11.6.1.2.1. first asian-origin people were Filipinos

11.6.1.3. early migrants were predominantly contract workers who labored on plantations, whose owners in the south sought Chinese labor as a cheap means to replace free labor of slavery

11.6.1.3.1. Page Act in 1875 enforced to institute a near-complete exclusion of Chinese women from the United States due to the fear of Asian women potentially engaging in prostitution

11.6.2. Exclusion Era

11.6.2.1. by the Immigration Act of 1924 Japanese and Chinese immigrants were not seen as citizens

11.6.2.2. development of China towns and self employment due to exclusion from agricultural labor

11.6.2.3. nowadays, the US Asian population is the fastest growing racial or ethnic group, which suggests they will eventually be the nation's largest immigrant group in 2055

11.6.3. Korean Families Chase their Dreams in the U.S.

11.6.3.1. "goose families" is a term which describes one parent migrating to an English-speaking country with the children, while the other parent stays in Korea

11.6.3.1.1. --> families that migrate in search of English-language schooling

11.6.3.2. having lived in Ameria carries a significant statues in Korean culture

11.6.4. Excerpt from Girl in Translation (2010) by Jean Kwok

11.6.4.1. A Chinese girl and her mother emigrated to the United states. She gets an acceptance letter from Yale University and finds the courage to break away from the old traditions of her culture

11.6.4.2. The girls Aunt Paula helped them migrate to the USA, however the girl and the mother had to depend on her and live under poor conditions because of her

11.6.4.3. Going to Yale, one of the most prestigious and expensive colleges in the USA offers them the opportunity to free themselves from their aunt

11.6.4.3.1. the girl is not afraid anymore to lose her face:" face or no face doesn't matter in America. What matters is who you really are"

11.6.4.4. the girl accuses her aunt of "fake kindness, fake ettiquette" because Aunt Paula tried to keep her face

11.6.4.4.1. Aunt Paula:"How dare you giving me so little face?" - Chinese idiom: when sb. gives sb. face they help the other person in a particular moment in a social situation that is embarrassing or unpleasant

11.6.5. On the Other Side of the War: A Story by Lucy Honig

11.6.5.1. An American soldier meets a vietnamese Women whilst being on duty and they have a baby. He decides to bring her home with him

11.6.5.2. The soldier as well as the women did not expect their lives to turn out like this as their culture is very different from each other

11.6.5.3. The vietnamese wife has a hard time fitting into the American culture. She mixes up words and prepares hamburgers instead of pancakes for breakfast

11.6.5.4. When their child started school they had to fill out forms and one question regarding the childs ethnicity. They don't know what to write down so they decide on 'H' which stands for Human race

11.7. The American Man

11.7.1. Letters from an American Farmer (J. Hector St. John de Crévecoeur)

11.7.1.1. "a new man. who acts upon new principals"

11.7.1.1.1. becoming a new man that has to leave his old life behind in order to adapt to new conditions

11.7.1.1.2. future-orientated

11.7.1.1.3. "Americans ought hterefore to love this country" - sense of patriotism

11.7.1.1.4. "his country is now that which gives him land, bread, protection and consequences: ubi panis ibi patria

11.7.1.1.5. "his religion demands but little of him" - religious freedom

11.7.1.1.6. "individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men" - Metling Pot

11.7.1.2. the immigrants are easily swayed to stay and adapt to the new environment as well as setteling with other races

11.7.1.2.1. the new land is very promising and offers a lot of charming posibilities like enough food and fertile soil

11.7.1.3. the lyrical I is very patriotic and confident about the New Land

11.7.1.3.1. there is unity and no racism

11.7.1.3.2. there are no bad aspects mentioned

11.8. Manifest Destiny

11.8.1. existed and still exists as the philosophy that embraces American history

11.8.2. Amercians thirst for expansion and to present a defense for Americas claims to new terretories

11.8.3. reflected as pride that characterized American nationalism in the mid 19th century and the idealistic vision of social perfection through God and church

11.8.4. in the name of this doctrine Americans took whatever land they wanted

11.8.4.1. the belief that it is Americas mission to democratize the word

11.8.5. justification for Americas territorial expansion and imperialism

11.8.6. role of the USA as a global mediator in political conflicts also grew out of this mindset

12. Great Britain

12.1. Britishness (according to Robin Cook)

12.1.1. confidence and inner strength

12.1.2. 3 forms of threats

12.1.2.1. 2.1 membership of the EU: "absorbing" Britain; Britain is better off alone or as a member of NAFTA

12.1.2.2. 3.1 devolution of power to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: a step further to the UK breakup

12.1.2.3. -> perceived "threats" can actually give the UK benefits

12.1.2.4. 1.2 there is no purity in English blood

12.1.2.5. 2.2 Britain´s history is linked to Europe, a geographic part of it -> culture and security depend on the EU; Britain trades 3 more times with the EU than with the NAFTA

12.1.2.6. 3.2 modern constitution allows flexibility

12.2. 1.1 arrival of immigrants: do not share the same values and traditions, cannot immigrate properly

12.3. Multiculturalism

12.3.1. = cultural diversity; (peaceful) coexistence of people from different ethnicities in one region /country

12.3.2. advantages

12.3.2.1. education: kids grow up in an open-minded environment, experience a variety of cultures and traditions

12.3.2.2. become more understanding and supportive towards immigrants, develop a better attitude against racism

12.3.2.3. economical vitality: professionals on various subjects contribute to the creation of a stronger team, new knowledge/ideas/perspectives->progress

12.3.2.4. cultural diversity and strong economy -> better relationships with other countires

12.3.2.5. local people adapting other cultures´ positive aspects into their daily lives

12.3.3. disadvantages

12.3.3.1. people fear losing their identity under the strong influence of foreign communities->prejudice and racism

12.3.3.2. far-right politicians fuel hate by blaming them for economic problems, portraying them as uneducated, criminal, unable to assimilate-> threat

12.3.3.3. some communities feel unheard; example: poor Muslim communities rioting in Bradford-> all Muslims are labelled as "bad"

12.3.3.4. closed communities occur->live inside a "bubble" where they feel supported and understood

12.3.3.5. no support for British values

12.3.3.6. poor English skills

12.3.3.7. kids are expected to fit family´s expectations and norms->school and education fall short

12.3.3.8. splitting of racial and religious groups

12.3.3.9. prejudice on both sides

12.4. general situation of Ethnic minorities in Britain

12.4.1. biggest non-white minorities: Indians, Pakistanis, Black Caribbeans

12.4.2. recently: Polish people ->second biggest minority

12.4.3. housing: poor areas, no mobility, but secure in their communities

12.4.4. employment: jobs in declining industries, unemployment much higher among minorities

12.4.5. education: differences in level of achievement, do less well than other pupils at all stages of education

12.4.6. law: black people are more likely to be stopped and searched, receive higher prison sentences, weak anti-discrimination law+lack of tolerance -> gap has widened in the UK

12.5. historical background of Pakistani immigrants in the UK

12.5.1. 1950s: mills needed cheap labour to keep up with international wool production

12.5.2. a few Pakistani men were brought over for trial, then huge amounts joined->coming from a poor area, the low wages seemed huge

12.5.3. the more they worked, the less freedom they had

12.5.4. poor living conditions: crowded group houses; eating, sleeping and working in shifts; sending home photos of themselves holding symbols of Western affluence-> hope

12.5.5. middle 60s: wives and children were brought over

12.5.6. first, they were welcomed and treated well by the local community

12.5.7. wool trade started to die out due to economical issues->attitude towards Asian community changed-> intruers, scapegoats to blame for problems

12.6. being stuck between two cultures

12.6.1. immigrants fear losing their identity -> do not want their children to adapt to western lifestyle, marriage locals...

12.6.2. young immigrants worry about fulfilling their family´s expectations->want to integrate into their local community, be seen as equal; education and upbringing play an important role

12.6.3. nationalists fear losing British culture and "purity" of blood->"negative influence" of immigrants

12.7. similar fears, different reasons

12.7.1. education is key to integration

12.7.2. parents´ expectations may clash with kids´ dreams and wishes

12.7.3. not being accepted as a local

12.8. text exapmles

12.8.1. Chicken Tikka Massala

12.8.1.1. external influences caused by commerce and imperial expansion; leads to pluralism of their ancestry

12.8.1.2. over 30 ethnic communities and over 300 languages are spoken in the UK

12.8.1.3. Britain absorbs and adapts external influences; more open to new influences

12.8.1.4. Caribbean history (colonialism) caused them to migrate

12.8.1.5. "Chicken Tikka Massala"->Indisch dish, now British national dish

12.8.2. "The Windrush Generation"

12.8.2.1. "Windrush" is a troop shit that brought civilian from Jamaica to Britain in 1948 -> settled there with their families

12.8.2.2. racism

12.8.2.3. "offers you no comfort after your journey"->regrets; expectations

12.8.3. "Rivers of Blood"

12.8.3.1. warning for immigration; he criticizes the mass immigration that is happening in the UK

12.8.3.2. he´s afraid about loosing his British culture -> they don´t dare to speak up to immigrants

12.8.3.3. due to history, everyone tiptoes around criticizing black people, afraid about being labelled as a "Racist"

12.8.3.4. "Rivers of Blood" Romans were beaten by their own weapons-> just like Britain will

12.8.4. "Why did multiculturalism become a dirty word?"

12.8.4.1. the woman in the text felt uncomfortable while she was walking with her mother, who wore a Sari in public

12.8.4.2. she wanted to be white, but only has had little experience with racism

12.8.4.3. Multiculturalism for her is a word, which includes seperatism

12.8.5. she now changed her mind and is proud about her Indian roots and having two cultures

12.8.5.1. integration (multiculturalism UK) vs assimilation (US melting pot)

12.8.5.1.1. integration

12.8.5.1.2. assimilation