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Migration von Mind Map: Migration

1. Field Note

1.1. Boat People

1.1.1. -Across the world hundreds of thousand of people flee their homelands on boats seeking better opportunities. Example of boat people Haitians.

1.2. Remittances

1.2.1. -Economies of poorer countries in the Caribbean, Africa, Central and Southern America depend on remittance sent to their citizens.

1.2.2. -Each year Haitians in the U.S. send home $350 million dollars.

1.3. Legality & Opportunities

1.3.1. -Not all immigrants are illegal, about 24 million out of the 34 million immigrants in the U.S. are legal.

1.3.2. -Immigrants are willing to risk their lives to find better living conditions and opportunities than their previous home.

2. What Is Migration?

2.1. -Cyclic Movement

2.1.1. -Shorter periods away from home, always going back to home. -Commuting to work or school. -Seasonal movement, many people in the autumn move south to warmer climate. -Nomadism is movement with things necessary to survival such as following animals on regular trials.

2.1.2. -Movement creates activity spaces.

2.2. -Periodic Movement

2.2.1. -Longer periods from home but still returning home. -Migrant labor, people move to work on large fields. -Transhumance, the movement of livestock in accordance to the climate in which people follow for the season. -Attending college, you spend a great amount of time there yet still have a home address. -Military service, millions of people are moved to new locations on tours of duty.

2.3. -Migration

2.3.1. -Human movement has sped up due to increased mobility over time.

2.3.2. -Human movement speeds diffusion of ideas and innovations.

3. Why Do People Migrate?

3.1. -Forced Migration

3.1.1. -Nazi Germany forced Jews to migrate to concentration camps.

3.1.2. -Most known forced migration is the Atlantic slave trade. -Distributed slaves across North and South America and had a significant effect on population -Have been and are still more forced migrations, but not nearly as large

3.1.3. -Britain shipped over 10,000 convicts to Australia.

3.2. -Push & Pull Factors in Voluntary Migration

3.2.1. -Ernst Ravenstein's Laws of Migration -1.Every migration flow generates a return or counter-migration -2.The majority of migrants move a short distance -3.Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations -4.Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas -5.Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults

3.2.2. -Gravity Model

3.2.3. -Step Migration

3.2.4. -Intervening Opportunity

4. Where Do People Migrate?

4.1. -Global migration flows

4.1.1. -Pre-1500 -Happened haphazardly -Due to exploration, pursuit of goods or fame, and colonization

4.1.2. -Post-1500 -Huge amount of migration -Large amounts of people migrating to the Americas -As places were discovered, humans began spatially distributing themselves and colonizing across the globe

4.2. -Regional migration flows

4.2.1. -Economic Opportunities -Main basis of regional migration -def. coastal cities established based on access to trade

4.2.2. -Reconnection of Cultural Groups For example, reuniting jews in 1948

4.2.3. -Conflict and war For example, after WWII many Germans fled their home voluntarily or forced.

4.3. -National migration flows

4.3.1. -Internal migration flows For example, the westward expansion and post-Civil War African-American movement

4.4. -Guest workers

4.4.1. -Migrate to work in other countries and return home Remittances

4.4.2. -Money sent by guest workers back to home countries

4.5. -Refugees

4.5.1. -Characteristics of refugees -Most refugees move without any more tangible property than they can carry or transport with them -Most refugees make their first "step" on foot, by bicycle, wagon, or open boat -Refugees move without official documents that accompany channeled migration

4.5.2. -Regions of dislocation -Subsaharan Africa -North Africa and Southwest Asia -South Asia -Southeast Asia -Europe

5. How Do Governments Affect Migration?

5.1. -Legal Restrictions

5.1.1. -The restrictions to immigrate are usually legal, not physical.

5.1.2. -Immigration laws are laws preventing immigrants to enter the country.

5.2. -Post 9/11

5.2.1. -After Sept. 11 U.S. borders became more strict and harder to cross.

5.2.2. -New policies were also introduced which made it much harder to become a citizen.

5.3. -Waves of Immigration in the United States

5.3.1. -When the U.S. allowed immigration they received many migrants from Europe.

5.3.2. -In 1921 congress created a quota whereby each year the U.S. only permitted 3% of Europeans coming to the U.S., this was lowered to 2% in 1924 then to 150,000 immigrants.

5.3.3. -In 1940 they gave the equal laws to immigrants from China.

5.3.4. -The U.S experienced 2 major waves of migration before 1930 and is currently experiencing one.