History of Discrimination In Canada During the 20th Century

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History of Discrimination In Canada During the 20th Century von Mind Map: History of Discrimination In Canada During the 20th Century

1. 1910s

1.1. Canada

1.1.1. African-Americans 1910 - Black Oklahoman farmers developed an interest in moving to Canada to flee increased racism at home. 1911 - an order in council was drafted prohibiting the landing of “any immigrant belonging to the Negro race, which race is deemed unsuitable to the climate and requirements of Canada”.

1.1.2. Chinese 1900 - Head tax on Chinese immigrants was increased from $50 to $100 1903 - Head tax on Chinese increased to $500.

1.1.3. Europeans 1901 - Census. 96% of the population was of European origin. 1911 census showed that 97% of the population was of European origin.

1.1.4. Indians 1908 - Continuous journey rule imposed by Order in Council. The “landing money” required of Indians was also increased from $50 to $200. 1914 - Komagatu Maru arrived in Vancouver, having sailed from China with 376 Indians aboard, who were refused admittance to Canada.

1.1.5. Native Aboriginals A 1907 report, commissioned by Indian Affairs, found that in 15 prairie schools there was a death rate of 24%. 1910 - Residential schools (Assimilation) dominated the Native education policy. The government provided funding to religious groups such as the Catholic, Anglican, United Church and Presbyterian churches to undertake Native education.

1.1.6. Women Woman's political status without the vote was vigorously promoted by the National Council of Women of Canada from 1894 to 1918. It promoted a vision of "transcendent citizenship" for women. The Military Voters Act of 1917 gave the vote to British women who were war widows or had sons or husbands serving overseas.

2. 1920s

2.1. Canada

2.1.1. Europeans By the early 1920s, central, southern and eastern European immigrants were officially classified among the "non-preferred" and restricted categories of immigrants. In the mid-1920s, however, in response to public pressure, the federal government loosened restrictions on immigration from Europe as a way of promoting economic development. 1921 census showed that 97.5% of the population was of European origin.

2.1.2. Native Aboriginals By 1920, attendance was made compulsory and there were 74 residential schools operating nation wide.

2.1.3. Chinese The Chinese Immigration Act, 1923 replaced prohibitive fees with a ban on Chinese immigration to Canada — excepting merchants, diplomats, students, and "special circumstance" cases.

2.1.4. Women The 1920s marked a breakthrough for women, including working class young women in addition to the pioneering middle class sportswomen.

3. 1930s

3.1. Canada

3.1.1. Jews During the 1930s Jews were targets of social discrimination, through informal residential restrictions, quotas in university professional schools, and exclusion from elite social clubs.. Canada closed its doors to Jewish immigrants at the time when they desperately needed refuge from Nazi persecution in Europe.

3.1.2. Chinese Blaming Chinese immigrants for the state of the poor economy turned into a way of increasing support for the "white supremacy" movement.

3.1.3. Japanese Even well-educated Japanese Canadians could only find employment in closed Japanese societies or were forced to start businesses chiefly serving

3.1.4. Women The 1930s brought setbacks, as critics recommended non-competitive athletic activities as the recreation most suited to women.

3.1.5. Immigrants were also required to show proof that they were farmers to enter the country.

3.1.6. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, mass financial suffering manifested as resentment towards minorities and immigrants in Canada. In a white-dominant workforce, Anglo-Canadian management was known to make attempts to break up camaraderie in the workplace by emphasizing the foreign origins of immigrant employees.

3.1.7. 1931 census showed that 97.7% of the population was of European origin.

4. 1940s

4.1. Canada

4.1.1. Japaneses During World War II, members of the Japanese Canadian community were interned and their property confiscated.

4.1.2. Native People Native peoples in Canada suffer from low incomes, high unemployment, high poverty rates and other adverse socioeconomic circumstances. Values, culture, political institutions, history and other 'soft' factors play a much greater role than the technical factors that traditionally most concern economists and policy makers.

4.1.3. French-Canadians During WW2, French Canadian nationalists charged that large-scale immigration (particularly since little of it was French-speaking) was an English Canadian plot to undermine the status of French Canada.

4.1.4. Europeans During the Second World War, German and Italian Canadians, and members of pacifist sects also encountered hostility. 1941 census showed that 97.7% of the population was of European origin.

5. 1950s

5.1. Canada

5.1.1. Immigration after 1945 was still biased in favor of Europeans, although the government allowed a small quota of immigrants from India, Pakistan and Ceylon (1951).

5.1.2. The 1951 census showed 97% of the population was of European origin.

6. 1960s

6.1. Canada

6.1.1. Until the 1960s, Canada chose its immigrants on the basis of their racial categorization rather than the individual merits of the applicant. In 1967 all racial restrictions on immigration to Canada were repealed, and Canada adopted the current points based system.

6.1.2. Chinese The Chinese Adjustment Statement Program was announced. The program included measures to curtail illegal entry of Chinese and to land Chinese in Canada without legal status.

6.1.3. The 1961 census showed 96.8% of the population was of European origin

7. 1970s

7.1. Canada

7.1.1. The 1971 census showed that about 95% of the Canadian population comprised those of European heritage, and it was hard to find more than 5% who could be considered non-European. Pierre Trudeau's government reformed the Immigration Act in 1976, which opened Canada's doors to the best and the brightest from the world over.

7.1.2. Native Aboriginals Most residential schools closed in the 1970s.

7.1.3. French-Canadians (Quebec) The Quebec government of the Liberal Party leader, Premier Robert Bourassa, passed the Official Language Act (Bill 22) in 1974, abolishing English as an official language and making French the sole official language of Quebec. The expression pure laine ("pure wool"), used to denote Quebecers of French descent, has often been cited as a manifestation of discriminatory attitudes.

8. 1980s

8.1. Canada

8.1.1. Canada extended their political and religious diversity to ethnic pluralism. By 1982 the Charter of Rights and Freedoms extended equality and freedoms to others as well. The 1981 census showed that 86% of population had a single European ethnic origin

8.1.2. Native Aboriginals The Constitution Act, 1982 was the first constitutional document since the Royal Proclamation of 1763 to acknowledge the distinct place of Aboriginal peoples within Canada, and section 35 recognizes and affirms existing Aboriginal rights. Positive steps have been taken in recent years to address the injustices of the past, and the inequalities of opportunity they have created. These include the Employment Equity Act, 1986, and the Canadian Multiculturalism Act, 1988.

8.1.3. Women In 1982, after MP Margaret Mitchell raised the issue of violence against women in parliament, and women's groups started lobbing the government to take action on the issue.

9. 1990s

9.1. Canada

9.1.1. Only 25 years later in 1996, the non-European, non-white visible minority population had doubled to 11 per cent. Canadians freely use the term "visible minority" to refer to all people of colour. This legally recognized term is entrenched in Canada's Employment Equity Act of 1995.

9.1.2. Native Aboriginals In the 1990s, beginning with the United Church, the churches that ran the residential schools began to issue formal apologies. in 1998 the Canadian government issued the Statement of Reconciliation, and committed $350 million in support of a community-based healing strategy to address the healing needs of individuals, families and communities arising from the legacy of physical and sexual abuse at residential schools. The money was used to launch the Aboriginal Healing Foundation.

9.1.3. The 1991 census showed that about 66% of the population had a single European ethnic origin

10. 2000-2016

10.1. Canada

10.1.1. By 2001 the proportion of visible minorities had increased to 13.4% By 2006 visible minorities comprised 16.2% In 2011, the National Household Survey showed that 19% of Canadians were visible minorities — with about 14.4 million people expected to be visible minorities by 2031.

10.1.2. The UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women has joined the call by Aboriginal women and Canadians across the country for a national inquiry into missing and murdered Aboriginal women. The government must stop using rhetoric and fear mongering that targets Muslim and other racialized communities. The use of terms like "jihadists" and "radical Islam" is irresponsible and sews hatred. The government must meet its international obligations by reporting to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD).