Changing places

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Changing places von Mind Map: Changing places

1. 1. Why has the world become urbanised?

1.1. People are moving from rural to the city...

1.1.1. for better job opportunities.

1.1.2. Push and pull factors

1.1.3. for higher quality living standards

1.2. Better medical facilities.

1.3. Higher birthrates in younger age ranges.

1.4. Lack of crop yield.

2. 3. How does urbanisation change places?

2.1. Reduced biodiversity.

2.2. Urbanisation causes massive growth within urban areas.

2.3. Environmental degradation (e.g deforestation) to make room for factories and residential buildings.

2.4. Modifies hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles.

2.5. Loss of arable/productive farmland.

2.6. Increase in economical and agricultural activity,

2.7. More concentrated pollution [in urban areas] due to more consumption in resources and activity in urban areas.

2.8. Urbanisation also decreases the population in rural areas.

2.9. Example - Country Examination: China

2.9.1. Population and Rural Growth from 1950 to predicted 2050

2.9.1.1. Though only being around 250 million in 1950, the graph shows a consistent growth from 1950-2010. After that, the prediction shows that the growth continues on its current trend of a consistent growth.

2.9.2. Urbanisation growth happens because of migration, and that can include internal migration.

2.9.2.1. Migration happens because migrants want better education, employment, and education opportunities, as well as better standard of living, and quality of living.

2.9.2.1.1. Quality of Life in China

2.9.3. City push and pull factors.

2.9.3.1. Access to educational services and medical facilities,

2.9.3.2. Cultural enrichment from access to product and services such as art galleries, shopping centers and entertainment.

2.9.3.3. Social Interaction: With more interaction with people, more opportunity to find a neighborhood and to join a community with a shared culture or value system.

2.9.3.4. Push factors

2.9.3.4.1. Overcrowding

2.9.3.4.2. Rising costs for utilities and houses

2.9.3.4.3. Traffic congestion (due to overcrowding)

2.9.3.4.4. Longer waiting times for various services (also due to overcrowding.)

2.9.3.4.5. Stress

2.9.3.4.6. Higher crime rates

2.9.3.4.7. Loneliness because cities make us feel less connected with everyone as opposed to a small rural town where everyone knows each other and their families.

2.9.3.5. Economic benefits such as access to employment, income, and infrastructure. Companies also benefit from having employees, a large customer base, and transport links for trade.

2.9.4. Consequences of urbanisation in China

2.9.4.1. Difficulty for rural-urban workers

2.9.4.1.1. Many are payed little to do hard and dangerous jobs

2.9.4.1.2. They have to work long hours, sometimes 6-7 days a week, just to scrape by in these jobs.

2.9.4.1.3. They have cramped and unsanitary housing

2.9.4.1.4. 40% don't have working contracts, which allows the employer to abuse, mistreat, and force their employees to use unsafe workplace practices

2.9.4.1.5. Approx. 21.3% are eligible for pension

2.9.4.1.6. Only 8.5% are able to receive unemployment benefits.

2.9.5. Environmental impacts

2.9.5.1. Pollution of...

2.9.5.1.1. Air

2.9.5.1.2. Water

2.9.5.1.3. Soil

2.9.5.2. Land degradation

3. 2. How does migration impact the concentration of people into urban places?

3.1. Migration generally increases urban population concentration and density.

4. 4. What strategies are used to manage environmental change in urban places to enhance urban stability?

4.1. Research and set priorities on issues that are the most important. There's no better strategy than strategising, itself.

4.2. Managing land degradation.

4.2.1. Introducing chemicals to improve soil structure.

4.2.2. Re-establishing ground cover.

4.2.3. Controlling wildlife population (e.g pest eradication programs)

4.3. Managing soil salinity.

4.3.1. Education programs and re-vegetation programs.

4.3.2. Making active decisions regarding salinity, such as salt intervention schemes.

4.4. Managing invasive species (pests).