My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education 저자: Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Schools as Organizations

1.1. Governance

1.1.1. Federal Alabama Senator:

1.1.1.1. Dough Jones (D)

1.1.1.1.1. Richard Shelby (R)

1.1.2. Representatives

1.1.3. Superintendent

1.1.3.1. Bill W. Hopkins Jr.

1.1.4. Mr. Billy Rhodes

1.1.5. Local state board

1.1.5.1. District 1: Billy Rhodes

1.1.5.2. D2: Mr. Adam Glenn

1.1.5.3. D3: Mr. Mike Tarpley

1.1.5.4. D4: Mr. Paul Holmes

1.1.5.5. D5: Mr. Jimmy Dobbs

1.1.5.6. D6: Mr. Tom Earwood

1.1.5.7. D7: Mr. John Holley

1.2. Elements of Change

1.2.1. School Process

1.2.1.1. The powerful cultural qualities of schools that make them so potent in terms of emotional recall, if not in terms of cognitive outcomes. In other words, what one takes most for granted in a school. Examples: teachers, cafeteria, smell, students, or other stuff that made an impact.

1.2.2. School Culture

1.2.2.1. Authority structures that are quite vulnerable and that a great deal of political energy is expended everyday.

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Purposes of Education

2.1.1. 1. Intellectial

2.1.1.1. It teaches basic cognitive skills, known as "book smart". It helps students acquire higher-order thinking skills.

2.1.2. 2. Political

2.1.2.1. Is to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order (patriotism); to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order; teach children the basic laws of society.

2.1.3. 3. Social

2.1.3.1. Helps solve social problems

2.1.3.1.1. It is a key ingredient to the stability of any society

2.1.4. 4. Economic

2.1.4.1. Prepares students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

2.2. Liberal Prespectives

2.2.1. 1. The Role of the School

2.2.1.1. It provides necessary education to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in education, teaches students to respect cultural diversity, and stress the importance of citizenship and participation.

2.2.2. 2. Explanations of unequal educational preformance

2.2.2.1. Not everyone has the opportunities. Therefore, society must attempt to equalize the playing field through policies and programs so that students from disadvantaged backgrounds have a better chance.

2.2.3. 3. Definition of Educational Problems

2.2.3.1. Schools limit life chances of poor and minority children, place too much emphasis on discipline and authority, differences in quality and climate between urban and suburban schools. and leaving out diverse of cultures are all the cause of students not becoming achievers.

3. History of U.S. Education

3.1. Reform Movement

3.1.1. 1. Equality of Opportunity

3.1.1.1. It is absolutely essential in order to to allow servicemen and women the opportunity to pursue higher education.

3.2. Historical Interpretation

3.2.1. 1. The Democratic-Liberal School

3.2.1.1. Believed that the history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution, albeit flawed, of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all.

4. Sociological Perspectives

4.1. Theoretical Prespectives

4.1.1. 1. Functional Theory

4.1.1.1. Education and society are both made up of people who have leaders in order to function. Functionalists see education as serving a beneficial role.

4.1.2. 2.Conflict Theory

4.1.2.1. Sees the educational system as perpetuating the lower classes into being obedient workers. It is not social beneficial or allows opportunities, but give power in a bad way.

4.1.3. 3. Interactionalism

4.1.3.1. Focuses on the actual "big picture". Finds the purpose of the real situation.

4.2. Three Effects of Schooling on Individuals

4.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes

4.2.1.1. Sometimes your background and class does have an effect on your achievement level but the schools academic program could also have an effect and make a difference in a students learning. Also, more years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation.

4.2.2. 2. Teacher Behavior

4.2.2.1. A teacher must transmit a positive and caring attitude in order to have an successful impact in a students learning.

4.2.3. 3. Inadequate Schools

4.2.3.1. There could be a difference in a students learning level because some schools offer more opportunities than others. For example, private schools allows students to have more one on one learning and teaching time.

4.2.4. 4. Gender

4.2.4.1. The way a school, teacher, or student refer to a different gender can effect a students learning environment. Normally, by the end of the school years girls have lower-self esteem than boys because of gender expression.

4.2.5. 5. Society and the Current Educational Crisis

4.2.5.1. This could cause a major "label" among certain students and schools when there is not enough funds to provide them with the necessities in order to be successful as the rest of the society.

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Pragmatism

5.1.1. Genetic Notation

5.1.1.1. Dewey's ideas were influenced b the theory of evolution and by an eighteenth-century optimistic belief in progress.

5.1.2. Key Researchers

5.1.2.1. Believed that if schools instilled democratic and cooperative values in children they would be prepared as adults to transform the social order into a more democratic one.

5.1.3. Goal of Education

5.1.3.1. School should be a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged, and restructured with the goal of providing students with knowledge of how to improve social orders.

5.1.4. Role of Teachers

5.1.4.1. Teachers should not be the authoritarian but the facilitator who encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and help plan and implement courses of study.

5.1.5. Methods of Instruction

5.1.5.1. Children should learn both individually and in groups.

5.1.6. Curriculum

5.1.6.1. Balance between traditional disciplines, and the needs and interests of the children.

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Educational Achievement & Attainment

6.1.1. Class 1.

6.1.1.1. Students in different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences. Some students have more advantages on continuing their education, while others do not due to class.

6.1.2. 2. Gender

6.1.2.1. An individual's gender was directly related to his or her educational attainment. It was said that there were significant more advantages for men because of strength and power.

6.1.3. 3. Race

6.1.3.1. Society is still highly satisfied by race. An individual's race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve.

6.2. Response to the Coleman Study

6.2.1. 1. Race and social economic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class.

6.2.2. 2. Private schools are more effective than public because it more of an enforcer on discipline rather than just standardized tests.

7. Education of Inequality

7.1. Cultural Differences Theory

7.1.1. 1. Cultural Deprivation Theory: Argued that students come to school without requisite intellectual and social skills necessary for school success. Example: Head-start or Daycare

7.1.2. 2. Cultural and class differences are product of an unequal economic system, which is modeled by the schools. Working class and non-whites may arrive at school with different cultural dispositions and without the skills and attributes required by the school.

7.2. School Centered Explanation

7.2.1. 1. School financing

7.2.1.1. It is different between districts. Inequality of funding is also a political issue.

7.2.2. 2. Effective school research

7.2.2.1. Climate of high expectations, strong and effect leadership, accountability processes, monitoring of student learning, flexibility to experiment and try new things staying on task, and more

7.2.3. 4. Within-school differences

7.2.3.1. Curriculum and ability grouping, functionalist perspective. Conflict theorist see tracking based on a scriptive characteristics reproducing inequalities.

7.2.4. 3. Between-school differences

7.2.4.1. Authoritarian and more student-centered, different school environment allow students to dream different dreams and life expectations

8. Educational Reform

8.1. School-based reforms

8.1.1. 1. School-Business Partnerships

8.1.1.1. Business leaders were concerned that the schools were not producing graduates for the U.S. economy. The Boston Compact was formed. Partnerships, foundations, entrepreneurs, and more helped by giving, scholarships, funding, and more to help and encourage students to further school.

8.1.2. 2. School Choice

8.1.2.1. Most public schools were failing in the terms of student achievement and discipline. Parents started sending their children to charter and private schools. It is said/thought that charter and private schools are more safe, efficient, and have more excelling students.

8.2. Societal, community, economic, or political reforms

8.2.1. 1. No child left behind

8.2.1.1. Most comprehensive federal legislation on education ever. accountability: guaranteeing results. flexibility: local control for local challenges.

8.2.2. 2. Race to the top fund

8.2.2.1. To aid states in meeting NCLB 4.35 billion improving students outcomes and closing the learning gap.

9. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

9.1. Terri Sewel (D), Mo Brooks (R), Martha Roby (R), Bradley Byrne (R), Gary Palmer (R), Robert Aderholt (R), Michael D. Rogers (R)

9.2. My Curriculum Theory

9.2.1. 1. Social Meliorism

9.2.1.1. Believe that education is a tool to reform society and create change for the better. This socialization of goal was based on the power of individual's intelligence, and the ability to improve on intelligence through education.

9.3. Dominant traditions of teaching

9.3.1. 1. Transformative

9.3.2. 2.Mimetic

9.3.2.1. Based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students.

9.3.2.1.1. Didactic method