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Biotechnology 저자: Mind Map: Biotechnology

1. Epigenetics

2. Biotechnology

2.1. Evolution

2.1.1. Life Passing of DNA from one organism to the next As species evolve, DNA becomes less and less similar

2.1.2. new alleles = COMPETITION

2.2. Sex

2.2.1. DNA is the info. passed on between parents and offspring (chromosomes) Gametes (1/2 genetic data each) Sperm Egg

2.3. Application

2.3.1. Biotechnology Genetic Modification Hybridization Animals Crops Gene Therapy Designer Babies Get rid of diseases Agriculture Cloning!

2.3.2. DNA testing Electrophoresis Parent Match Homicide Investigations

2.3.3. Research (origins)

3. Central Dogma

3.1. DNA

3.1.1. Replication Semiconservative Builds 5' --> 3' Leading Strand = continuous build Lagging strand = short portions shortens every time (remove primase from 5' end) Helicase (unwinder) Single Stranded Binding Protein (SSB) BIG PICTURE CANCER mutation in DNA what causes it? MUTAGENS

3.1.2. Structure Double helix 2 anti-parallel strands Phosphate -> Sugar backbone 5' --> 3' ! hydrogen bonds between nucleotide bases (A to T; G to C!) Methylated (locked) and wrapped around histones to form chromatin (folded into chromosomes) how we pass on our genes! hydrogen bonds between nucleotide bases (A to T; G to C!) Methylated (locked) and wrapped around histones to form chromatin (folded into chromosomes) in the cell nucleus

3.1.3. History Griffith's Transforming agent Chagraff's rules: concentrations of the complementary bases are equal in humans- %A=%T and %G=%C Watson and Crick discover double helix Rosalynd Franklin's X-ray crystallography helped! Showed pitch (bases/rotation) and bend (horizontal length of each turn) DEBATE! DNA or PROTEINS = genetic material? Why? Proteins have 20 amino acids, DNA has only 4 nucleotide bases. Hershey-Chase Experiment Avery, MacLeod, and McCarthy prove this by confirming Griffith's "factor" via experiments Avery Macleod McCarthy experiment

3.1.4. Chemical Properties Built up of nucleotide monomoers Deoxyribose (sugar) Nucleic acid Phosphate group (PO4) Net negative charge

3.2. Transcription

3.2.1. Process INITIATION Transcription factors (proteins) are released and bind to DNA at TATA box ELONGATION Reads the DNA 3'-->5' and attaches RNA bases one by one 5'-->3', JUST LIKE DNA POLY.! TERMINATION Synthesizes RNA! RNA poly. breaks off and 2nd step in Central Dogma complete.

3.2.2. RNA: ribonucleic acid. (DNA + extra OH), 3 types of polymer! mRNA AKA messanger RNA tRNA AKA transcription RNA rRNA AKA ribosomal RNA

3.3. Translation

3.3.1. Process INITIATION mRNA, ribosomal subunits, and tRNA all exit the nucleus ELONGATION "AUG" codon mRNA attached at the P-site TERMINATION The last codon attracts the RELEASE FACTOR (special protein)

3.3.2. the RIBOSOME protein synthesis machine built of rRNA and proteins Small subunit

3.3.3. Proteins! peptide chain is ALMOST a protein! combines with additional peptide units (quaternary structure) enters CHAPERONIN (safety basket)

3.3.4. Eukaryotes Intracellular protein synthesis nucleus Intercellular protein synthesis nucleus

3.3.5. Prokaryotes have it made! no editing

3.4. Or: DNA -> RNA -> Polypeptide -> Protein!

4. Cell Division

4.1. Mitosis

4.1.1. make an exact copy of the cell: SOMATIC CELLS: 2n cells CELL CYCLE Interphase Mitosis Problems Apoptosis

4.2. Meiosis

4.2.1. synthesize GAMETES: 1n cells Eggs, sperm 1 cell becomes 4 gametes

4.3. Embryology

4.4. Heredity

4.4.1. What is heredity?: The passing of traits from parents to offspring. Sexual Reproduction: 2 parents. Each contributes roughly 1/2 genetic data for the offspring. MIXING of traits. Today, heredity can help explain family traits, diseases, and other important topics. Let's focus on the genetics behind Heredity in "GENES" Asexual Reproduction: exact copy, identical traits

4.5. GENES

4.5.1. individual portions of the DNA that code for protein products; in this case, for heredity!! Alleles Sometimes, DNA mutates. In some cases, this mutation can create a new form of a gene. Gene Locus The base pairs of the gene in relation to the chromosome Genotype The genetic code within each sex cell/zygote. What the DNA codes for. Phenotype The resulting protein/trait from the DNA Chromosome A collection of genes (DNA) wrapped around histones (chromatin). Humans have 23