BIO

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BIO 저자: Mind Map: BIO

1. Complimentary Bases

1.1. The complimentary base pairs are Adenine,Thymine and Cytosine,Guanine

2. Watson and Crick

2.1. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick discovered that DNA is made of two chains wrapped around each other called a double helix.

3. Nucleotides

3.1. A nucleotide consists of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base, two nucleotides make DNA

4. DNA Replication

4.1. First the enzyme helicase unzips the DNA at the replication fork, next the enzyme DNA polymerase adds the corresponding base pair, finally DNA ligase comes and adds any missing complimentary base pairs. It is semi conservative becase one helix is new and one is old.

4.2. A mistake in DNA replication results in mutations. Cancer is a result of DNA mutations

5. RNA

5.1. DNA vs RNA: DNA uses Deoxyribose while RNA uses Ribose. RNA also uses U instead of T. DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded.

5.2. RNA is used to make proteins by using the genetic code taken from DNA.

6. Genes

6.1. Genes are segements of DNA that codes for a specific characteristic.

7. Transcription

7.1. Transcription is the process by which the genetic instructions in a specific gene are transcribed onto an RNA molecule.

7.2. Transcription takes place in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

8. Steps of Transcription

8.1. 1) RNA polymer binds to the promoter on the DNA.

8.2. 2). RNA polymer adds RNA nucleotides that are complementary to the DNA sequence. Uracil replaces Thymine.

8.3. 3. RNA polymerase reaches a terminal signal, and the new strand is released. This is mRNA

9. Translation

9.1. Instructions from mRNA now need to be made into an actual protein

10. Steps of Trsnalsation

10.1. Initiation: rRNA houses the production of protein and locks onto mRNA.

10.2. Elongation: The tRNA carries the amino acid that corresponds to the anti-codon, Then another tRNA comes and brings another amino acid for the next codon sequence.

10.3. Termination:It will stop when the reaches a stop codon. (You can see what the amino acids are by looking at a codon table.)

11. At the fork of replication

11.1. the strand being built in a long continuous segment is called the leading strand

11.2. and

11.3. At the fork of replication, the strand being built in short block segments is called the lagging strand

12. Chromosomes

12.1. DNA is coiled into compact structures called chromosomes, The DNA wraps around proteins called histones to keep its shape. Each identical half of a chromosome is called a chromatid. The centromere is what attaches the two chromatids together.

12.2. A karyotype is a photomicrograph of the chromosomes.The two copies of each autosome are called homologous chromosomes Females have two X sex chromosomes and males have an X and a Y sex chromosomes. Cells having two sets of chromosomes are diploid and cells that have one set are haploid.

13. Mitosis

13.1. Mitosis is cell division where identical copies of the cell is made. Prokaryotes reproduce through binary fission. The time before cell divisions is called interphase.

13.2. The three parts of Interphase are, G1: the cells grow to full size, S phase: the cell’s DNA is copied, G2 phase: is when the cell prepares to divide

13.3. Mitosis is divided into 4 phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase. In prophase the centrosomes move towards opposite poles and form spindle fibers. In metaphase Spindle fibers move the chromosomes to the center of the dividing cell and hold them in place. In anaphase the chromatids separate and are considered individual chromosomes. In telophase Chromosomes return to a less tightly coiled state and the nuclear envelope forms around each new set of chromosomes

13.4. After that happens the area that pinches in and separates the dividing cell into two is called the cleavage furrow, called cytokenesis. In plant cells, there is no cleavage furrow but a cell plate instead that forms to divide the cell into two.

14. Meiosis

14.1. Meiosis produces gametes, which are sperm cells and egg cells. Sperm and egg cells each contain 23 (n) chromosomes. The fusion of sperm and egg results in a zygote that contains 46 (2n) chromosomes

14.2. Meiosis 1: Synapsis is the pairing of homologous chromosomes. This occurs when the chromosomes line up next to their homologue. A pair of homologous chromosomes is called a tetrad. Crossing over is when portions of chromatids can break off and switch with the other chromatids of their homologous chromosome, this insures that your not a clone. Metaphase 1 is the same as mitosis. The random separation of the homologous chromosomes is called independent assortment. Once the chromosomes seperate the cell begins to divide, Telophase 1 & Cytokinesis 1.

14.3. After meiosis 2 takes place the production of sperm cells is called spermatogenesis. Oogenesis is the production of mature egg cells. In oogenesis, one egg cell is produced called the ovum because cytokinesis occurs unevenly, the other three are polar bodies and they shrivel up.

15. Genetics

15.1. Gregory Mendel observed that each characteristics is a heritable feature such as flower color. A trait is a genetically determined variant of a characteristic.

15.2. Self pollination occurs when pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma on the same plant. Cross pollination occurs between flowers of two plants,

15.3. Plants that are true-breeding, or pure, always produce offspring with a specific trait when they self pollinate. These parents are known as the P generation. The offspring of the P generation is the F1 generation. The offsping of the F1 generation is F2.

15.4. If there is a dominat allele with a reccessive allele the dominant trait will be the one expressed.

15.5. An organisms genetic makeup is its genotype. An organisms appearance is its phenotype. When both alleles of a pair are alike, the organism is said to be homozygous. A cross in which one characteristic is tracked is a monohybrid cross. A punnett square is a diagram to predict the inherited traits.

15.6. The law of segregation states that a pair of factors is segregated, or separated, during the formation of gametes. he law of independent assortment states that factors separate independently of one another during formation of gametes.

16. unit 3,4,5

16.1. bacteria grows in us and viruses use us as hosts, a virus head is the head of a virus and its whre the virus dna is and viruses have virus legs. i have allergies. skin cells are dust and are the first line of defense. mucus stops unknown shits from getting up ur nose, cilia are pubes in your throat, saliva breaks down gross shit in our mouths but dont do a very good job at it. all the shit your boogers and spit cant hold back (bassicly everything) is hopfully eated by ur stomach acid, stomcah ulcers are maybe important to some ppl but not me. white blood cells are baby cops, killer t cells are prepubesent cops, when ur bodies shitty imune system cant seem to stop a mild threat like the flu your body realeses histomines and pyrogens to make the infected area hot. congrats u have the flu, say hello to an unplanned vacation. the next thing ur body will do is make antibodies, when a baby cop eats an invaded particle it finds antigens to show to the t cells who then find b cells to then help lymph nodes who store the antigens. Then the b cells make good antiboides to kill the infection or whatever tf you got, b cells turn into memory cells and now know how to defend more effectivly againts whatever tf u just got. vaccines give us antibodeis to kill viruses, antobiotics kill bacteria. hiv kills most of all your prepubeecent cops. aids are hiv

17. unit 1,2

17.1. There are maybe like 5 types of evolutoin; convergent meaning organisms develop similar traits due the similarities of the environments, divergent meaning the oppisite, adaptive is when a group of a species isolates itself from the others and becomes a new species, co-evo is when predators and prey evolve to survive eahother

17.2. Charlse darwin visited the Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin discovered several species of finches that varied from island to island which meant they descended from common species but changed a little, which helped him to develop his theory of natural selection. The unfit finches in the environment died and the fittest survived.

17.3. some evidence of evo are embryortic similatries, meaning some aniamls look similar when theyre embryoes, another is fossils and shows that animals changed over time. yet another is homologoues structures which is basicily the same as fossil recods but comaring two different animals and concluding that they have similar limbs. another one is vestigail organs, meaning that along time ago whale or some shit used an apendis and so we have it but we have no use for it coz were kewl. and last and certainly least is molecular evidence proving that species have similar dna bc for some reason ppl care