The Nature of Periodic Elements

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The Nature of Periodic Elements 저자: Mind Map: The Nature of Periodic Elements

1. Periodic Table

1.1. Has 118 Elements

1.2. Elements are arranged in increasing atomic number

1.3. Color-coded to show Metals and Non-Metals

1.3.1. A metal is an element that readily forms positive ions and has metallic bonds

1.3.2. Non-metals are the elements in groups 14-16 of the periodic table, The non-metals exist in two of the three states of matter at room temperature

1.4. Each element has an Atomic number, Name, Symbol, and Atomic Mass

1.4.1. Atomic number - is the proton number of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of every atom of that element

1.4.2. Name - The names of the elements

1.4.3. Symbol - This includes the chemical symbols of the elements

1.4.4. Atomic mass - The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units

1.5. The table is made up of columns and rows, Columns indicating the groups and the Rows indicating the periods

1.5.1. Group - A group is any column on the periodic table, There are eight main groups of elements, numbered 1, 2, and 13-18

1.5.2. Periods - is a row of chemical elements. All elements in a row have the same number of electron shells

1.6. A table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number, usually in rows, so that elements with similar atomic structure appear in vertical columns

1.7. Invented by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869

2. Periodic Trends

2.1. Periodic trends are about when a certain elemental characteristic decreases or increases

2.2. Under periodic trends are, Atomic Radius, Ionic Radius, Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity and Electron Negativity

2.2.1. Atomic Radius - is similar to the Radius of a Circle, it is the total distance from an atom's nucleus to the shell of the electrons. It decreases from left and increases downward right

2.2.2. Ionic Radius - is the distance from nucleus to the outer electrons in an ion, it is when adding an electron makes an atom bigger and when taking one away makes it smaller

2.2.3. Ionization Energy - is the measure of difficulty when removing an electron from an atom

2.2.4. Electron Affinity - is the opposite of ionization, as it tells us how much a atom will gain an electron

2.2.5. Electron Negativity - is the ability of an atom to hold electrons tightly

3. Electron Configuration

3.1. Is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in atomic or molecular orbitals

3.2. It describes each electron as moving independently in an orbital, in an average field created by all other orbitals

3.3. Are described by Slater determinants or configuration state functions

3.4. Electron configuration was first conceived under the Bohr model of an atom

3.4.1. The Bohr model depicts an atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons

3.5. Electron configurations of atoms follow a standard notation in which all electron-containing atomic sub-shells are placed in a sequence