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1. Learning Theories


1.1.1. Theorists Siemens Know where to find more important then knowing what or how (Siemens) Downes Knowledge is "the set of connections formed by actions and experiences"

1.1.2. Key Ideas Learning is process of creating connections and developing a network connect information sources and specialist nodes of knowledge "A learning theory for the digital age" Being able to find vs being able to remember ž “…forget about trying to ‘know’ everything; instead, build your network of knowledge sources, and access them whenever you need them.” -Ryan Tracey Capacity to know more is of greater importance then what you currently know Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions Connectivist learning activities are meant to help the learner gain Currency, as in accurate, up to date information. Seeing connections core skill (between fields, ideas, concepts) continual learning requires nurturing connections

1.1.3. Criticisms Really new? informal vs formal learning My thoughts: How to make deeper/complex connections when relying on finding knowledge? Internal Criticisms Siemens: Groups are networks Downes: Socialization should not be a goal of Education


1.2.1. Theorists Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development Dewey Piaget Montessori

1.2.2. Key Ideas Mind as Network/The Mind is a Rhizome We learn by building connections when we actively interact with the environemnt Create constructs to act as filters, to order our reality Build our own knowledge Roots in Cognitivism (see yellow) Learning as active, social process Knowledge should be discovered

1.2.3. Key Ideas for Education Learner as self-directed, innovative and creative Student-Centered Teacher facilitates learning Learning involves building your own knowledge from your own experiences Start with complex problems, teach basic skills well solving these problems Problem-Based Learning Project-Based Learning Learning should involve AUTHENTIC TASKS Active Learning Discovery Learning Collaborative Learning Case-based Learning

1.2.4. Criticisms Subjective-create own version of the truth My thoughts: problematic connection to relativism Time Consuming Requires mature learners Difficult for teachers to assess Impractical without prior Knowledge My thoughts: much to offer but needs to be balanced with other learning techniques to ensure strong Knowledge base. Requires further research and empirical evidence


1.3.1. Cognitivism Theorists Piaget Gagne Vygotsky Bruner Also Wiener, Tolman, Miller, Neisser etc. Key Ideas Behaviour can be explained by internal processes of the mind Mind like computer: input, store, retrieve data Response to Behaviorism Prior Knowledge Key to Learning Key Ideas of Teaching Schema/Scaffolding Motivation Practice for Retention Organization Mnemonic devices Mental Maps Criticisms Can't study unobservable behaviour Reduces humans to machines Ignores biological factors Ignores affective and psychomotor Narrowly focuses on Knowledge

1.3.2. Cognitive Load Processing information can over or under load our working/short term memory Overstimulation Under-stimulation Ideas for Teaching Chunking Instructional Design Learning Structures Implications for EdTech?


1.4.1. Theorists Pavlov Pavlov's dog Watson Classical conditioning Albert B. Thorndike Law of Effect Skinner Operant Conditioning and Skinner's Box Shaping

1.4.2. Key Ideas Concerned with observable behaviour not with thinking Behaviour determined by stimulus-response (repetition) Conditioning Behaviour determined by environment Learn from consequences Negative reinforcement Positive Reinforcement tabula rasa, child's mind as blank slate

1.4.3. In Teaching Modelling Shaping Cuing Drill and practice Direct Instruction Teacher Directed/Lecture

1.4.4. Criticisms Too dterministic -denies freewill Oversimplistic Learning not always tied to behaviour Ignores internal action such as thinking Humans adapt Learning can be achieved without rewards/punishment Should not compare humans to animals

2. Technology and Society


2.1.1. Theorists McLuhan "The Global Village" "The Medium Is the Message" Postman "Media ecology is the study of media as environments."

2.1.2. Key Ideas 1) Technology effects humanity and Society "technology and techniques, modes of information and codes of communication play a leading role in human affairs" -Lance Strate How does technology change us? 2) Technology as environments As an environment, media imposes certain ways of "thinking, feeling and behaving" by impacting what we see and how we can act. -Postman 3) We have moved in the electronic age and have become part of a global community

2.1.3. Critiques "The Medium is NOT the message" interpretations vary and the content matters Technologcal determinism Do we not effect technology?


2.2.1. Theorists Bijker Pinch

2.2.2. Key Ideas Critiques determinism of Media Ecology 1) technology does not determine human action, human action shapes technology Technological Constructivism 2) Must understand technology's social context It is not just the "best" technology that is embraced Relevant Social Groups 3)Interpretative flexibility Different groups interpret technologies differently. They see different benefits and problems.

2.2.3. Critiques Ignores the consequences of technologies superficial, ignores deeper reasons for social choices Unhelpful in resolving debates about human use of technology as fails to make moral judgements

3. Technology-based Learning Theories

3.1. TPACK

3.1.1. Theorists Mishra Koehler Builds on PCK of Schulman

3.1.2. Key Ideas Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Content + Pedagogy + Technology Where Content, Pedagogy and Technology intersect Use best technology to teach pedagogical content knowledge Technology should serve content and pedagogy. Don't start with technology. How can I best teach the content? Ask yourself: What do I need to teach? What is the best way to teach it? What technology works best? How do we incorporate technology into our teaching?


3.2.1. Key Ideas Combines beliefs about teaching and current teaching practices How does this impact your teaching? How does it impact how you use technology within the classrooom? Philosophy of teaching as it connects to using technology What do you believe about teaching? What do you believe about technology? What is your personal teachnology?


3.3.1. Theorists Mishra Kereliuk

3.3.2. Key Ideas What do students need to know today? Foundational Knowledge "to know" Meta Knowledge "to act" Humanistic Knowledge "to value"

3.4. SAMR Model

3.4.1. Theorists Puentedura

3.4.2. Key Ideas How are we changing our tasks when we incorporate technology into teaching? Technology Integration Levels