Learning Theories - Mind Map

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Learning Theories - Mind Map 저자: Mind Map: Learning Theories - Mind Map


1.1. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

1.1.1. Motto “understand and describe the kinds of knowledge needed by a teacher for effective pedagogical practice in a technology enhanced learning environment.”

1.1.2. Theorists Shulman TPACK - Builds on his idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge Mishra & Koehler

1.1.3. Basic Principles Teaching that integrates technological knowledge with content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge under the broader scope of context. The complex interplay between three of the primary forms of knowledge

1.1.4. Key Ideas The intersection of all three PCK - Pedagogical Content Knowledge TCK - Technological Content Knowledge TPK - Technological Pedagogical Knowledge TPACK - Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

1.1.5. Implications for teaching TPACK strategic thinking assists the teacher in choosing appropriate digital, information and communications technologies for guiding students’ learning

1.1.6. Criticisms Teacher may use a technology simply because it is there and not because it is the best tool for that activity. A side note would be to choose the activity first and then choose the appropriate technology. This theory is still new and a lot of research remains to be done.

2. Connectivism

2.1. Connectivism

2.1.1. Motto A learning theory for the digital age

2.1.2. Theory that has emerged since 2006

2.1.3. Learning is the process of creating connections and developing a network

2.2. Theorists

2.2.1. George Siemens

2.2.2. Stephen Downes

2.3. Basic Principles

2.3.1. Quotes “Knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks...” “...Knowledge is...literally the set of connections formed by actions and experience.” (Stephen Downes) “...forget about trying to ‘know’ everything; instead build your network of knowledge sources, and access them whenever you need them.” (Ryan Tracy)

2.4. Key Ideas

2.4.1. Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge)) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.

2.4.2. Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions

2.4.3. Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes of information sources

2.4.4. Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known

2.4.5. Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill

2.4.6. Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning

2.4.7. It is more important to “know-where” to find thing in your network that to “know-how” or “know-what” (George Siemens )

2.5. Implications for teaching

2.5.1. Practicing what they preach... (MOOC)

2.6. Technologies

2.6.1. Twitter

2.6.2. Social Networking (Facebook)

2.6.3. Bookmarking Apps (Evernote)

2.6.4. Search engines (Google, yahoo, bing)

2.6.5. Any communication tool email, webcam, chat, VC, Discussion forums

2.6.6. Anywhere we can store data Databases, intranets, drives, WWW, servers

2.7. Criticisms

2.7.1. Informal vs. Formal learning

2.7.2. Is it really a new theory?

2.7.3. Internal criticism Downes: Socialization should not be a goal of education Siemens: Groups are networks

3. Constructivism

3.1. Moto

3.1.1. The mind is a rhizome (network)

3.1.2. "Learning by making"

3.2. Theorists

3.2.1. Feuerstein

3.2.2. Vygotsky

3.2.3. Bruner

3.2.4. Papert

3.3. Basic Principles

3.3.1. Learning is building connections by actively interacting with the environment

3.3.2. Begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems

3.3.3. Learning involves constructing one’s own knowledge from one’s own experiences

3.3.4. Learning is most effective when learners create tangible, real-world objects. (Seymour Papert)

3.4. Key Ideas

3.4.1. 1 Teacher as facilitator Problem-based learning Project-based learning Authentic tasks

3.4.2. 2 Discovery learning Case-based learning Active learning Vygotsky’s Zone of proximal development

3.4.3. 3 Gradual Release of Responsibility Putting the responsibility for leaning in the students’ hands

3.5. Implications for teaching

3.5.1. Student-centered

3.5.2. Teacher's role is "guide by your side"

3.5.3. Project based learning/ cooperative learning Authentic task

3.5.4. Problem-based learning Student driven Students define the content to pose and solve complex problems

3.6. Technologies

3.6.1. Lego Robotics

3.6.2. Scratch

3.6.3. Many video games (Civilization, Heroes of might and magic, Sims etc...)

3.6.4. Technology as tool: A means to an end Google sites Wikispaces PB Works Blogger Wordpress

3.7. Criticisms

3.7.1. Time consuming

3.7.2. Subjective learning

3.7.3. Mature learners required

3.7.4. Difficult assessment

3.7.5. Impractical without prior knowledge

3.7.6. Lack of research/ empirical evidence

4. Behaviourism

4.1. Theorists

4.1.1. Pavlov

4.1.2. Watson

4.1.3. Thorndike

4.1.4. Skinner

4.2. Basic Principles

4.2.1. Stimulus Response Repetition

4.2.2. Operant Conditioning Reinforcement +/- Punishment +/-

4.3. Criticisms

4.3.1. Oversimplifies learning

4.3.2. Learning is not always tied to behaviours

4.3.3. Learning does not required rewards of punishments

4.3.4. The mind is not a blank slate

4.3.5. People adapt

4.3.6. One-dimensional

4.4. Key Ideas

4.4.1. Modelling

4.4.2. Shaping

4.4.3. Cuing

4.4.4. Drill and Practice

4.5. Implications for teaching

4.5.1. Behaviourism: Instructivism Direct instruction Teacher directed Primary mode: Lecture

4.5.2. Behaviourist Educational Practices Learning objectives / curriculum Direct instruction Behaviour analysis Classroom management techniques Rewards

4.6. Technologies

4.6.1. Math blaster

4.6.2. iClickers

4.6.3. TED Talks/ YouTube

4.6.4. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)

4.6.5. Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA)

4.6.6. Online Tutorial (e.g, learnhub, eHow, etc)

4.6.7. Brain Pop

4.6.8. Foursquare, Huffingtonpost

4.6.9. Microquest games (e.g, Cafeville)

5. Cognitivism

5.1. Cognitivism

5.1.1. 1900 Developed in 1900 as a response to behaviourism

5.1.2. Motto The mind is a computer

5.1.3. Theorists Piaget Gagne Vygotsky Bruner

5.1.4. Basic Principles Beyond the “blank slate” Memory systems are active, organized processors of information Prior Knowledge is Key in learning

5.1.5. Key Ideas 1 Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model Working Memory Schema / Scaffolding 2 Meaningful effect Motivation Seriality 3 Practice for retention Organization (Prezi) Mneumonic (memory) devices 4 Metaphor / Symbolism Mental maps Advanced organizers

5.1.6. Technologies Digital Mapping Prezi Electronic Note taking (GoodNotes, One Note, Track Changes (word)) LMSs (Learning Management Systems

5.1.7. Criticisms Ignores the affective and psychomotor (motor skills) Too focused on knowledge; difficult to measure understanding and HOTS (higher order thinking skills)

5.2. Cognitive Load Theory

5.2.1. What Processing information can over or under load a working memory

5.2.2. Basic principles Chunking Learning structures Instruction design Error/ Fundamental Attribution Error

5.2.3. Implications for EdTech 1. What thing look like matter User Interface HCI General Aesthetic 2. How things are organized matter Navigational structures Layout of information

6. Theories of Technology

6.1. Media Ecology

6.1.1. Motto “The medium is the message” – McLuhan

6.1.2. Theorists Marshall McLuhan Harold Innis Walter Ong Eric Havelock Neil Postman Lewis Mumford Jaques Ellul Susanne Langer

6.1.3. Basic Principles Study of media as environments How media of communication affects human perception, understanding, feeling, and value; How our interaction with media facilitates or impedes our chances of survival.

6.1.4. Key Ideas McLuhan The medium itself shapes and controls “the scale and form of human association and action”. And, “the user is the content, and this means that the user must interpret and process what they receive, finding sense in their own environments.

6.1.5. Implications for teaching How we deliver information and learning materials may be as important as the content itself “the world’s first generation to grow up thinking of itself as global. The internet and satellite television networks are just two of the myriad technologies that have made this possible.” The new media is characterised by the idea of web 2.0. Characterised by co-creativity, participation and openness, represented by software that support for example, wiki-based ways of creating and accessing knowledge, social networking sites, blogging, tagging and 'mash ups'

6.1.6. Criticisms Baron and Davis The theory is "overly optimistic" about the role of technology in society Puts too much emphasis on how much technology influences society

6.2. SCOT (Social Construction of Technology)

6.2.1. Theorists Introduced in 1984 Bijker Pinch Callon

6.2.2. Basic Principles Based on social constructivism and the sociology of scientific knowledge; it is an interactive social process that shapes all forms of technology

6.2.3. Key Ideas technology is developed interactively between engineers and interested social groups useful or meaningful technologies survive, social shapes technical science progresses due to social forces

6.2.4. Implications for teaching knowledge is a social construction (can be interpreted in different ways) people attach meanings or interpretation to artefacts people direct technological development through their interpretations/meanings

6.2.5. Technologies Classic examples – bicycle development, bakelite, light bulbs

6.2.6. Criticisms Most studies are done on successful innovations, few on failures Does not account for some revolutionary discoveries e.g. Copernicus

7. Philosophy of Teachnology

7.1. Basic Principles

7.1.1. The Philosophy of Teachnology is the teacher’s personal belief on how and when to use technology in the classroom as a teaching tool.

7.1.2. The Philosophy of Teachnology comes from the Philosophy of Teaching. Philosophy of Teaching Key elements

7.2. Key Ideas

7.2.1. A teacher’s personal statement on their values and beliefs about technology and teaching and learning.

7.2.2. Influenced by the teachers preferred learning theory, along with personal experiences and educational encounters with technology.

7.2.3. A Teaching Philosophy statement will typically include : The teachers understanding of the roles of students, teachers and technology The teachers understandings of the methods of teaching and the methods of assessment using technology. These statements are indented to be re-evaluated and re-assessed over time. A teacher’s philosophy of teaching will change as they gain new insights into teaching and technology over time.

7.3. Implications for teaching

7.3.1. Based off of teacher philosophical beliefs on teaching, learning and technology in the classroom.