Plastic pollution and it's ecological impacts on the soil ecosystem.

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Plastic pollution and it's ecological impacts on the soil ecosystem. Door Mind Map: Plastic pollution and it's ecological impacts on the soil ecosystem.

1. Concerns of plastic pollution in the soil environment.

1.1. Soil pollution as a critical factor affecting the survival of living organisms and human food safety.

1.2. Microplastic pollution as the current research focus especially in soil and terrestrial ecosystems.

1.3. Up to 600 particles of microplastic are found in soil samples in a study of Switzerland.

1.4. Most plastic digestion and extraction methods are using strong acids that will harm the environment.

2. Microplastic pollution in the soil

2.1. Diverse source of plastic has been reported.

2.1.1. Domestic sewage, containing fibres from clothing and beads from personal care products

2.1.2. Biosolids

2.1.3. Fertilizers

2.1.4. Landfills

2.1.5. Wastewater irrigation

2.1.6. Lake water flooding

2.1.7. Littering roads

2.1.8. Illegal waste dumping

2.1.9. Agricultural activities

2.2. Fragmentation of plastics can occur on the surface soil.

2.2.1. Incorporated into deep soil and burrowing earthworms activity.

2.3. Potential distribution of MPs into groundwater and hyporheic zone.

3. Impacts of microplastics on soil organisms

3.1. MPs in soils can be ingested and transferred to soil organisms.

3.2. MPs accumulate in their bodies will lead to unwanted effects, even toxicity on soil organisms.

3.2.1. Exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) will accumulate in the bodies of eathworms.

3.2.2. PBDE can be transferred to other environments and organisms.

3.3. Organic matter with high concentration of MPs will related to high stress response of earthworms

3.3.1. Histopathological damages and immune system responses of earthworms

3.3.2. Increase in the contents of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharide

3.3.3. Increases of nutrients caused by multiple stress-response mechanism

3.4. Bioavailability of metals like Zn will be affected in the soil ecosystem.

4. Future prospect

4.1. Develop advanced techniques and methodologies for the sampling, extraction and detection of plastic waste in soil media

4.2. Recognize present state and condition of plastic pollution in soils.

4.3. Consider more organisms like plants, invertebrates, insects and microorganisms in investigating the impact of plastic pollution on the soil environment.