An Introduction To Oceanography

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An Introduction To Oceanography создатель Mind Map: An Introduction To Oceanography

1. Define

1.1. ~The study of the ocean, embracing and integrating all knowledge pertaining to the ocean's physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of seawater, and marine biology. ~The scientific study and exploration of the oceans and seas in all their aspects, including all processes in the oceans and interactions and relations with Earth.

1.1.1. Summary

1.1.1.1. Oceanography is the study of the deep sea and shallow coastal oceans. =Subjects related to biology, chemistry, geology, and physics. (Richly interdisciplinary science)

2. Important of Oceanography:

2.1. ~The oceans to physical climate, food supplies and biology stability. ~An extra dimension to human activity ~Long-term habitability Earth

3. Origins of Oceanography

3.1. ~Physical oceanography were explorers in the 19th century and was developed the flowing fluids by the physicists. ~The physical ocean and climate were used techniques of physics and applied mathematics for physical oceanographers. ~Biology, chemistry, and geophysics to understand the molecular level for discovery.

3.2. ~Biology oceanographers were naturalists cataloguing the life-forms of the sea. ~The Geology and Geophysics of the ocean owes much to ideas of plate tectonics, verified 'at sea' by the magnetic striping of seafloor that emerges from spreading center ridges on 1960s.

3.3. ~Chemistry in oceanography also developed through the circulation (chemicals are transported with the ocean circulation and exchanged with seabed and atmosphere)

4. Oceanograrphy Entail:

4.1. Ocean and environment are coupled together in 'environment models' and 'dissemination models'; the computer models become the gathering point for perceptions, hypotheses, and forecasts.

5. Scripps Institute of oceanography

5.1. - At Scripps, observation, measurement, and collection of samples and data are accomplished on ICES -The area of responsibility is physical, chemical, and pelagic biological oceanography. Responsibility includes issues such as impacts of climate variability -Describe, understand, and quantify the state and variability of the marine environment in terms of its physical, chemical, and biological processes. -Co-ordinate international monitoring and data management programs. -Understand and quantify the role of climate variability and its implications for the dynamics of marine ecosystems. -Evaluate the ecosystem consequences of contaminants and eutrophication. Develop and improve fisheries assessment tools that utilize environmental information. -Play an active role in the design, implementation, and execution of global and regional research and monitoring programmes

6. Living machine:

6.1. -form a working machine and driven mostly by energy from the sun. -Lesser amounts of energy derived from tides raised by the moon and sun and planets, and heat from the Earth's interior.

7. IFREMER

7.1. Example

7.1.1. -Seafloor -Satellite Oceanography -Circulation and currents -Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

8. Oceanographers and oceans:

8.1. -Oceanographers aim their work at both practical problems and basic scientific discovery. -Oceans provide threats -Oceans provide bountiful diversity of food -Oceans is the reservoir of our water supply -Oceans have most of the heat and carbon of the climate system -Oceans are the source of roughly ½ the respired oxygen of the biosphere, -Oceans contain most of the remaining undiscovered natural pharmaceuticals -Study of ocean life provides models for research in human illness, for example using the giant, accessible neurons of the squid. -Techniques of classical physics are joined with modern instrumentation and computers.

9. Circulation:

9.1. Ocean Circulation

9.1.1. Winds drive surface circulation, and the cooling and sinking of waters in the polar regions drive deep circulation (Thermohaline).

9.2. Surface Circulation:

9.2.1. Carries the warm upper waters poleward from the tropics. Heat is dispersed along the way from the waters to the atmosphere At the poles, the water is further cooled during winter and sinks to the deep ocean. This is especially true in the North Atlantic and along Antarctica.

9.3. Deep Sea Circulation/ Thermohaline circulation:

9.3.1. Antarctic base water is the densest and coldest water in the sea profundities. It structures and sinks simply off the mainland slant of Antarctica. Flow of sea waters is imperatively significant.

9.4. Another Examples: 1)Ocean Dimensions, Shapes & Bottom Materials 2)Properties of salt water 3)Geography - patterns and distributions 4) Water, Salt and Heat Budgets 5)Deep Sea Fisheries 6)Coral Reefs

10. Example jobs on Oceanography:

10.1. -Physics -Mathematics -Chemistry -Biology -Geology